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Chitchat Opium and China Military threads

taksinloong

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http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-03-17/doc-ifyshfuq7533726.shtml

央视报道中国在建马赫数10-25风洞:达世界最高水平
央视报道中国在建马赫数10-25风洞:达世界最高水平

0
  [观察者网综合报道]中央电视台3月16日新闻节目中,采访了北京中科院高温气动力国家重点实验室,在采访中,该机构研究员韩桂来介绍,该单位正在研制新的风洞,这个风洞模拟马赫数可以达到10-25。目前美国最先进HYPULSE风洞的测试速度与中科院正在研制的新型风洞类似,为世界最高技术水平。


  中科院正在研制马赫数10-25的新型风洞


  节目画面中出现目前世界上最先进的JF-12风洞


  JF-12风洞全景,其旁边摆放的管道是用于改变试验条件时所使用的部件


  JP-10爆轰风洞,其风速最高20马赫,不过该风动的尺寸还不如美国HYPLUSE


  Hypluse风洞示意图,该风洞可以模拟的速度达25马赫(甚至最高可达30马赫),与中国正在建造的新型风洞相似


  位于纽约的HYPULSE风洞承担的部分试验任务,中国新型风洞可能承担相似的任务

  中央电视台采访内容如下:

  科院高温气体动力学国家重点实验室 韩桂来:实验室主要是做飞行相关的,一般都是做高超声速的,就是5倍声速以上的这种高速飞行。它的终极目标就是要面向于将来的天地往返的空天飞机。

  这座长达265米的风洞是全球首座复现高超声速飞行条件的激波风洞,尽管各项技术指标全球领先,但韩桂来仍然感受到来自国际竞争的巨大压力。

  韩桂来:全世界都在争,对于速度的追求,就跟奥运会一样,你要飞得更高、要飞得更快。我们正在研制的一个新的风洞,目前我们现在这个风洞它是面向于马赫数5到9的这样一个飞行器,将来的风洞它要面向马赫数10到25。

  韩桂来所说的这个风洞作为国家的重大科研仪器项目,获得了国家自然科学基金委的资助,他认为,基础研究要真正走向应用,离不开国家的支持。

  韩桂来:如果国家在基础类的研究方面加大投入,去组织各种各样的创新活动、重大的科技项目,对于我们将来的发展形势来讲,可以做很好的积累,很好的储备。

  观察者网军事评论员表示,这则报道中出现的JF-12风洞,则是直径达到1.5米的大型高超声速风洞,与Hypulse并不属于同类,此前的其他节目中,曾提到美国直径1.5米的大型风洞,测试速度为4-7马赫,这应该是指美国1976年建成(后面有几次改造)的美国空军阿诺德基地的9号风洞,与JF-12性质相似,不过试验能力要差一些。

  相比之下,我国的JF-12风洞有效试验时间长达100毫秒,具有复现25-50公里高空,马赫数5-9范围高超声速飞行条件的能力,是当前这一领域世界上最先进的风洞。它将可以用于进行高超声速推进技术的试验,因为试验速度比它更高的风洞的试验时间非常短,不够进行超燃冲压试验。



  美国《世界风洞》杂志2010年刊登文章介绍安德森基地9号风洞(1976年建成,当时刚刚完成新的改造),2010年的时候,美国还是可以在此领域沾沾自喜一番的……

  目前,世界上与中科院JF-10风洞(马赫数7-20)在原理上相近的,是美国1994年为NASA建成的HYPULSE风洞,据NASA发表的相关文档,该设施的测试速度为5-25马赫,最高据称可达30马赫。

  不过,这类风洞尽管测试速度非常高,但试验时间非常短,无法满足推进试验需求。

  此外,美国还有“大型能源国家激波黑洞”(缩写LENS)系列风洞,该型号黑洞中速度最高的型号也可达到30马赫,不过目前美国在这一系列上最新的进展是在LENS II风洞上,进行改进,使之测试速度放宽到3.5马赫,以便模拟高超声速推进条件。

  新型10-25马赫风洞的研制,则更多将有助于研制高超声速滑翔、大气层再入等飞行器的研制。


  此次新闻报道中展示的一个高超声速风洞测试部件,这可能是一种新型的MARV(可机动再入飞行器)弹头
 

taksinloong

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Loyal
http://slide.mil.news.sina.com.cn/k/slide_8_38692_61822.html#p=1

世界最高水平!中国建25马赫高超音速风洞

支持 键翻阅图片 列表查看


全屏观看 2018.03.17 15:30:41










1 / 18
3月16日,央视采访了北京中科院高温气动力国家重点实验室,在采访中,该机构研究员韩桂来介绍,该单位正在研制新的风洞,这个风洞模拟马赫数可以达到10-25。目前美国最先进HYPULSE风洞的测试速度与中科院正在研制的新型风洞类似,为世界最高技术水平。(图片鸣谢:微博网友@沉默的山羊)


世界最高水平!中国建25马赫高超音速风洞

支持 键翻阅图片 列表查看


全屏观看 2018.03.17 15:30:41










2 / 18
目前美国最先进HYPULSE风洞的测试速度与中科院正在研制的新型风洞类似,为世界最高技术水平。













3 / 18
中央电视台采访内容如下:科院高温气体动力学国家重点实验室 韩桂来:实验室主要是做飞行相关的,一般都是做高超声速的,就是5倍声速以上的这种高速飞行。它的终极目标就是要面向于将来的天地往返的空天飞机。












5 / 18
这座长达265米的风洞是全球首座复现高超声速飞行条件的激波风洞,尽管各项技术指标全球领先,但韩桂来仍然感受到来自国际竞争的巨大压力。韩桂来:全世界都在争,对于速度的追求,就跟奥运会一样,你要飞得更高、要飞得更快。我们正在研制的一个新的风洞,目前我们现在这个风洞它是面向于马赫数5到9的这样一个飞行器,将来的风洞它要面向马赫数10到25。











6 / 18
韩桂来所说的这个风洞作为国家的重大科研仪器项目,获得了国家自然科学基金委的资助,他认为,基础研究要真正走向应用,离不开国家的支持。韩桂来:如果国家在基础类的研究方面加大投入,去组织各种各样的创新活动、重大的科技项目,对于我们将来的发展形势来讲,可以做很好的积累,很好的储备。













7 / 18
军事评论员表示,这则报道中出现的JF-12风洞,则是直径达到1.5米的大型高超声速风洞,与Hypulse并不属于同类,此前的其他节目中,曾提到美国直径1.5米的大型风洞,测试速度为4-7马赫,这应该是指美国1976年建成(后面有几次改造)的美国空军阿诺德基地的9号风洞,与JF-12性质相似,不过试验能力要差一些。

CAUTION: NUKE WARHEAD!










8 / 18
相比之下,我国的JF-12风洞有效试验时间长达100毫秒,具有复现25-50公里高空,马赫数5-9范围高超声速飞行条件的能力,是当前这一领域世界上最先进的风洞。它将可以用于进行高超声速推进技术的试验,因为试验速度比它更高的风洞的试验时间非常短,不够进行超燃冲压试验。













9 / 18
目前,世界上与中科院JF-10风洞(马赫数7-20)在原理上相近的,是美国1994年为NASA建成的HYPULSE风洞,据NASA发表的相关文档,该设施的测试速度为5-25马赫,最高据称可达30马赫。不过,这类风洞尽管测试速度非常高,但试验时间非常短,无法满足推进试验需求。












10 / 18
此外,美国还有“大型能源国家激波黑洞”(缩写LENS)系列风洞,该型号黑洞中速度最高的型号也可达到30马赫,不过目前美国在这一系列上最新的进展是在LENS II风洞上,进行改进,使之测试速度放宽到3.5马赫,以便模拟高超声速推进条件。新型10-25马赫风洞的研制,则更多将有助于研制高超声速滑翔、大气层再入等飞行器的研制。












11 / 18
节目画面中出现目前世界上最先进的JF-12风洞全景,其旁边摆放的管道是用于改变试验条件时所使用的部件。












12 / 18
JP-10爆轰风洞,其风速最高20马赫,不过该风动的尺寸还不如美国HYPLUSE












13 / 18
Hypluse风洞示意图,该风洞可以模拟的速度达25马赫(甚至最高可达30马赫),与中国正在建造的新型风洞相似。












14 / 18
位于纽约的HYPULSE风洞承担的部分试验任务,中国新型风洞可能承担相似的任务。












15 / 18
美国《世界风洞》杂志2010年刊登文章介绍安德森基地9号风洞(1976年建成,当时刚刚完成新的改造)












16 / 18
2010年的时候,美国还是可以在此领域沾沾自喜一番的……









17 / 18
此次新闻报道中展示的一个高超声速风洞测试部件,这可能是一种新型的MARV(可机动再入飞行器)弹头。
 
Revealed MACH30 now!

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-03-18/doc-ifyshfur1057058.shtml

中国研制风速达30马赫风洞曝光 可助飞机2小时抵纽约
中国研制风速达30马赫风洞曝光 可助飞机2小时抵纽约

0
此次新闻报道中展示的一个高超声速风洞测试部件
  2018年2月底,日本媒体报道中国在研全球最先进的风速达30马赫的风洞,该项研究被央视3月16日的节目证实,北京中科院高温气动力国家重点实验室的科学家在接受采访时称,该单位目前研制新的风洞,风速可达25马赫,最高达30马赫。该科学家说,这是世界最高技术水平的风洞。

  此前引发对中国风洞关注的原因是前不久中国发布了一款高超音速飞机,这架造型前卫的飞行器被认为以高超音速飞行,2小时即可从北京抵达纽约,这将是人类史上史诗级的技术进步,中国人走在了前列。

资料图:高超音速飞行器
  同时,这种高超音速飞行器也引发西方担忧,一旦改造为军事目的,将是无敌状态的高超音速轰炸机,现有的技术无法阻止它的攻击。

  高超音速飞行器的研发离不开风洞测试,中国关于建造更加先进的风洞的消息被外国媒体挖掘并披露,北京中科院高温气动力国家重点实验室的科学家,这次公开披露了中国在研世界最先进的风速达30马赫的飞行器,彰显了中国在该领域的自信。

  科学家在节目中称:我们正在研制一个新的风洞,现在的JF12激波风洞只能面向5到9马赫速度的飞行器,新的风洞面对的是速度达10-25马赫的飞行器。


  该新型风洞被指为针对更高马赫的高超音速飞行器以及中国前不久公开发布的空天飞机,分析认为JF12激波风洞虽然是当今最为先进的风洞,2012年投入使用以来对中国高超音速飞行器的研发起到非常大的推动作用,但是由于有效试验时长100毫秒,不足以进行超燃冲压试验。而超燃冲压发动机是下一代飞行器的核心动力,消息披露,2017年,中国已经研发出新型超燃冲压发动机的样机。


  另外有一个值得关注的现象,就是央视节目在2017年公开了JF12激波风洞的诸多细节,节目画面披露了中国多款高超音速飞行器的模型,当时就有分析称,中国之所以公开JF12激波风洞,是因为该项目在中国已经不是最先进的设备,虽然在全球范围内JF12还是最先进的风洞——这意味着中国在研的新型风洞已经取得了关键性的进展。(作者署名:前沿哨所)


http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-03-18/doc-ifyshfur1356618.shtml

中国一技术助美国建成最先进装备 德国竟也意外受益
2018年03月18日 11:20 新浪军事

0
节目画面中出现目前世界上最先进的JF-12风洞
  3月16日央视节目披露了中国在研的一项重大项目,中科院北京高温气动力国家重点实验室研发的科学家在采访中介绍,该单位研制世界最高技术水平的新型风洞,风洞风速可达10-25马赫,最高可达30马赫。

  在2017年,中国披露了之前高度保密的JF12激波风洞,并公开亮相了多款高超音速飞行器模型,此举被分析认为中国已经在新型风洞的研发上取得了突破性的进展,央视的披露证实了这种推测。

  JF12激波风洞是世界最先进的风洞,最高分速可达10马赫,基本上所有的参数都优于国外同类的设备。中国之所以能够达成这样搞的指标,得益于中科院力学所俞鸿儒院士研发的先进驱动技术——爆轰驱动。

资料图:高超音速武器
  俞鸿儒院士从上世纪80年代开始开始研究风洞的驱动技术,在JF8激波风洞上取得了成功,随后中国利用该技术建成了风速达10马赫的JF12激波风洞,2012年正式投入使用。按照国外媒体报道,JF12风洞启用之后,中国进行了9次高超音速试验,从WU-14到东风-17,中国都取得了成功——激波风洞在研发过程中起到了关键作用。

  正是在俞鸿儒院士及众多科学家的努力之下,中国的风洞技术能够与美国并驾齐驱,中国的绵阳风洞群更是拥有全球最全全先进的各种风洞,一度认为中国该领域落后的欧洲科学家在访问了绵阳风洞群后,才发现欧洲的风洞已经落后了中国数个级别。

资料图:风洞
  美国人的风洞也得益于中国的研究,美国人获得了俞鸿儒院士研发的风洞爆轰驱动技术之后,发现比美国自己的技术效能更高,于是美国宇航局(NASA)修改了原来的自由活塞驱动设计方案,在通用应用科学实验室建立了爆轰驱动的HY激波风洞,这也是世界目前最为先进的风洞之一。

  另外,1993年,在俞鸿儒院士的帮助下,德国亚琛工业大学建造了应用反向爆轰驱动技术的激波风洞TH2D。


  这也引发了一个新的争论,数十年前至今,西方持续对中国进行技术封锁,然而,中国研发的新科技却在输出到西方,这不是一个正常现象,中国现在迎来技术爆发的时代,我们应该让西方这样分享我们的科研成果吗?(作者署名:前沿哨所)
 

Tony Tan

Alfrescian
Loyal
PLA lastest type 055 giant destroyer will carry MACH6 missiles range 1000km alike the Dong Feng. This means it can be a nuke warhead. 1000km meaning from SG53 launched can reach Vietnam Cambodia Thailand. MACH6 means nearly impossible to intercept, strike time at Max range = 6mins.

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-04-08/doc-ifyvtmxc7815677.shtml

中国055大驱或装备弹道导弹 射程1千公里速度超6马赫
中国055大驱或装备弹道导弹 射程1千公里速度超6马赫

0
  这几天席亚洲大佬分析高超音速武器武器那么带劲,施佬只能是自愧不如,但是一句话不说也不好,于是把一年多前在《惯性世界》上写过的旧闻截取片段,给大家看一看当年在这一个系列的高超音速武器中,中国海军未来可以拿到什么样的装备。

  对于反舰导弹而言,自从二战后期诞生以来,拓展导弹射程、提升导弹突防能力同时保障导弹的威力和导弹精度一直是不变的目标。这其中,射程的拓展和突防能力的提升除了依靠更合理科学的路径规划外,主要依靠的是更先进的推进技术和导弹燃料水平的不断提高。


  ▲ 从低速到高速,从近程到远程,从不隐身到隐身,规律都是一样的

  目前而言,大部分超音速反舰导弹都使用冲压发动机以维持其超音速飞行,具体设计则可分划分为整合水平较高的固体火箭冲压一体式发动机和较低的固体助推器和冲压发动机分体结构,另外一些导弹则使用了涡喷发动机加固体火箭加速的方式,实现导弹在飞行末端突防过程中的加速。


  ▲ “鹰击-12”就是一种典型的冲压发动机超音速反舰导弹

  归根到底,这些使用空气作为氧化剂的飞航导弹如果要继续增加速度,都面临两个问题:一是进气道内空气速度控制问题,二是传统飞航导弹构型进一步加速带来的制导和控制问题。


  ▲ 这么多超音速反舰导弹长期都在3马赫上下的最大速度,不是没有理由的

  冲压发动机作为超音速导弹的主要动力,但其和一般喷气式发动机一样,都需要将高速的空气气流减速到音速以下才能正常燃烧,因此当导弹速度显著提升后,如何将进气道内的空气减速以维持发动机的正常运行就成了关键问题,但当导弹速度提升到3.5马赫甚至4马赫以上时,进气道内的空气速度已经很难再降到音速以下,这也就是传统冲压发动机的速度上限。


  ▲ 印度这个“布拉莫斯”作为一种传统的冲压发动机反舰导弹,技术上已经很难进一步突破

  尽管超燃冲压发动机可以在进气道空气流速超音速的情况下继续工作,从而使导弹的飞行速度提升到5马赫甚至更高,但这种新技术目前仍在中美等大国的研究中进行探索,远没有成熟到实际应用状态。相比之下,固体火箭发动机因为不需要外界空气做氧化剂,避免了这一难题,加之技术成熟,反而成为各种高超音速导弹的较好选择。但火箭发动机燃烧时间短,传统反舰飞航导弹飞行高度低,使其有效射程很难继续延长。


  ▲ 连(和毛子合作的)三哥都知道高超音速的冲压整个构型都是要变的

  除了原理上的限制,导弹尺寸也是一个重要的限制因素。从052D型导弹驱逐舰开始,中国海军已经在全新建造的新型大中型水面舰艇上全面应用新一代的通用垂直发射装置,即将竣工的055型大型导弹驱逐舰也将使用这型垂直发射装置。


  ▲ 要反舰导弹都和“海鹰3”一样体型庞大,那水面舰艇也得跟战列舰似的~~

  该型垂直发射装置可容纳武器的最大长度为9米,最大弹径为850毫米,从武器通用化的角度看,这种大尺寸垂直发射装置计划要兼容包括防空导弹、反导导弹、反潜导弹、反舰导弹等绝大多数舰载导弹武器,自然新一代反舰导弹的外形尺寸和发射形式也都要限制在这一尺度内,如果考虑到现有的鹰击-18已经在尺寸上基本达到了通用垂直发射装置尺寸的上限,中国新一代反舰导弹要实现上千公里的射程,同时还要保证较高的飞行和突防速度,就必然要采用与现有导弹截然不同的结构。

  面对这样的挑战,中国采用了一种前所未有的技术路线来实现新一代远程反舰导弹所要求的技术指标,即将反舰弹道导弹技术和时下时髦的高超音速武器系统结合起来。导弹使用类似钱学森弹道的整体飞行轨迹,垂直发射后,先以传统的弹道导弹方式和轨迹,在固体火箭发动机的推动下快速爬升,进入大气层外,并在再入稠密大气层后,依靠导弹的升力体状态在大气层边缘进行类似“打水漂”的6-8倍音速跳跃高速滑翔,并依靠激光惯导进行中段控制,并在滑翔末端使用主动相参雷达导引头发现、识别、锁定类似航母的大型水面舰艇目标,并以7马赫左右的速度发起高超音速俯冲攻击。导弹在升空后的绝大多数时间里保持超音速飞行状态,并且在滑翔段至命中的阶段保持6马赫甚至更高的高超音速,从而大幅度缩短导弹飞行时间,并增大敌方拦截的难度。


  ▲ 官方画师……就是这个效果

  这样的导弹性能,加上其研制初始要求的能够使用通用垂直发射系统进行发射的要求,使得该型导弹的尺寸被限制在9米长、850毫米弹径,因此导弹必须采取一系列技术以满足要求。这其中包括高超音速导弹所需的轻质化长时间大面积防热材料、全程机动飞行控制系统等,并使用无尾罩冷发射方式。这一系列技术都给导弹的研制带来了巨大的挑战。


  ▲ 烫这个事情…………不是搞不了,是搞好的成本太高

  尽管如此,全新的导弹结构和攻击模式带来的好处也是显而易见的:借助弹道导弹式的爬升和高抛弹道,即使使用燃烧时间较短的固体火箭发动机,也能通过高抛弹道获得巨大的势能;超出大气层的弹道高度,使得传统的防空导弹几乎无法对其实施有效拦截,只有专门用于反导优化的反导拦截弹才有一定成功率;滑翔段的钱学森弹道则能够让导弹比普通的弹道导弹额外多出30%的有效射程,按照其尺寸计算,该弹的最大射程可以达到1000公里甚至更远;由于这一弹道比普通弹道导弹的弹道变化更多,因此在雷达跟踪和计算上的难度也比传统反导作战更大;除此之外,由于该型反舰导弹从设计初始就要求能够装备在通用垂直发射系统内,因此其装舰范围不像冷战时期苏联的重型反舰导弹那样对载舰平台的尺寸有严格的要求。


  ▲ 只有冷战才能容忍这种“全舰伺候几发弹”的情况

  055型导弹驱逐舰和已经批量装备的052D型导弹驱逐舰理论上都可以发射该型导弹,这也使得该型导弹可以在未来中国海军大多数驱逐舰上装备,从而较为容易地实现大载弹量的饱和攻击。


  ▲ 饱和攻击是所有武器战法的基本要求

  至于这么远射程导弹的制导问题,这种1000公里射程的反舰导弹已经完全不可能仅仅依靠本舰雷达提供全程引导,更多地需要包括预警机、侦察机、侦察卫星、海洋卫星等多种侦查手段综合探测和锁定目标位置,并实施共同引导。本质上说,这一整套系统与中国火箭军部队用于反航母作战的DF-21D型反航母弹道导弹所构建的目标搜索和跟踪系统高度相似甚至重合,也正因此,这种新型反舰导弹可以充分利用现有的系统,并能够与包括火箭军反航母弹道导弹在内的作战系统联合作战,实现打击效果的最大化。


  ▲ DF-21D对于中国最大的意义,就在于一整套大范围航母检测系统的建立

  作为目前中国海军的重点工程,这种远程高超音速正处于研制和攻关的关键阶段。按照目前055型大型导弹驱逐舰的建造进度和数量,第一批的055型导弹驱逐舰在竣工服役之初可能不会直接配备该型导弹(此时该型反舰导弹应该处于各类定型试验的后期阶段),但从后续建造的第二批055大型导弹驱逐舰开始,这型导弹将随这些舰只开始服役,使055在航母编队中的价值从“大号提康德罗加”晋身为“提康德罗加+光荣级”,并可能凭借其适装性在所有的055型和052D型舰上推广装备。


  ▲ 虽然大家都以为055是“提康德罗加”的中国版,但很可能他身上也蕴藏了“基洛夫”的能量

  由于这一时期无论是辽宁舰还是首艘国产航空母舰都是滑跃起飞模式的航母,在舰载机出动效率上与弹射器航母还有不小的差距,舰载机联队的航空反舰能力也相对一般,主要执行的仍然是舰队防空任务,新一代远程反舰导弹则会成为中国海军在2025年前后最为重要的远程重型反舰武器,成为中国航母编队反舰作战的核心力量。


  当年这段文字还没人相信,不过到今天,大家可能也不会觉得有什么意外了。所谓的技术发展和人类对新概念武器的认知进步,也就是这样的过程。(作者署名:胡诌施佬)

  《出鞘》完整内容请关注新浪军事官方微信抢先查看(查看详情请搜索微信公众号:sinamilnews),《出鞘》每天在新浪军事官方微信完整首发。
 

tun_dr_m

Alfrescian
Loyal
PLA to USA. Rocket Army today armed itself with yet another new powerful IRBM can sink carriers at Guam on mobile truck platform. This is a lighter cheaper version than the previous which can sink carriers globally (ICBM). This cheaper version means Rocket Army can have more stocks and choices to sink nearer carriers with a cheap IRBM.

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-04-16/doc-ifzcyxmv3614755.shtml

央视曝光我军列装新武器 反航母范围扩大至第二岛链
央视曝光我军列装新武器 反航母范围扩大至第二岛链

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中国新型中远程弹道导弹
CCTV报道火箭军列装新型中远程导弹
  4月15日,CCTV报道中国人民解放军火箭军正式列装新型中远程弹道导弹,标志着中国火箭军作战能力又向前迈进了一大步。

  从相关报道来看,中国新型中远程弹道导弹具备战略、战术打击双重用途,既可以向对方重要目标进行战略打击,也能够向对方重要战役节点进行战术打击,还具备打击海上大型舰船的能力,是人民解放军撒手锏武器之中骨干和中坚。

  一般而言国内外将射程为3000-5000公里范围内导弹称之为中远程导弹,从这个范围来看,第二岛链目标都处于中国新型中远程弹道导弹打击范围之内,外界特别注意到这种新型中远程弹道导弹具备战术打击能力,因此认为它采用了先进的制导系统,具备非常高精度,可以让导弹飞行数千公里还可以准确打击地面目标。

中国火箭军东风-21D反舰弹道导弹
超级大国凭借1、2艘航母就能耀武扬威的日子已经一去不返了
  最让人感觉吃惊的就是这种中远程弹道导弹还可以打击海上舰船目标,这样意味着中国反舰弹道导弹打击能力又向前迈进了一大步,根据海外资料,中国火箭军现役反舰弹道导弹是东风-21D,它是在国产东风-21中程弹道导弹基础上发展而来,采用了雷达制导系统,具备对海面目标探测和打击能力,按照这些资料评估,由于制导系统更加复杂,重量增加,所以东风-21D射程大约在1500-1700公里左右,不过这个射程已经可以覆盖第一岛链,将超级大国海军航母向后逼退了1000公里左右,所以对方称东风-21D是“二战以来最严峻的挑战”,是一种“改变战略态势的武器”,可以说超级大国海军UCLASS舰载无人作战飞机、空军B-21战略轰炸机项目都有针对东风-21D意味,这些项目都有一个特点就是尽可能增加打击兵力作战半径,例如UCLASS已经演化成隐身空中加油机,它可以为F-35进行空中加油,以提高F-35航程和作战半径,在这种情况下,中国火箭军也需要进一步延伸反舰弹道导弹射程,以便应付对方航程增加的打击兵力。

MQ-25很大程度就是应对反舰弹道导弹
  对于弹道导弹来说,载荷和射程呈反比关系,载荷越大,射程越近,一般而言,常规弹头重量要大于战略弹头,因此常规型射程要小于战略型,反舰战斗部需要配备末制导系统、还要弹翼及控制系统进行机动,所以重量更大,因此反舰弹道导弹射程又要比常规型要小,前面说过东风-21中程弹道导弹射程超过2500公里,但是东风-21D射程只有1500公里左右,从这个角度来讲,中国新型中远程弹道导弹射程为5000公里,反舰弹道导弹型大约为2500-3000公里,这已经是一个非常惊人的数字。

  一般认为对方主力舰载机超级大黄蜂、F-35重载情况下作战半径大约为1000公里左右,一次空中加油之后大约可以达到2500公里,这样中国新型中远程反舰弹道导弹已经可以覆盖这个范围,对方要进行两次空中加油才能脱离我方打击范围,作战行动难度迅速增加,同时也意味着对方航母战斗群在关岛附近就处于中国反舰弹道导弹打击范围之内,航母战斗群向战场机动过程之中可能会受到中国火箭军连续不断的打击。

中国火箭军列装新型中远程导弹,作战能力向前迈进了一大步
  尤其需要指出的是中国新型中远程反舰弹道导弹装备部队,也标志着中国已经可以对第二岛链航母战斗群进行监控,能够为新型中远程反舰弹道导弹提供目标指示,同样这些信息和数据也可以提供其他航母打击武器,例如中国海军航母编队、空军远程轰炸机、攻击核潜艇,形成整体反航母体系,有效提高我军抗击对方航母战斗群的能力。(作者署名:小飞猪观察)

  《出鞘》完整内容请关注新浪军事官方微信抢先查看(查看详情请搜索微信公众号:sinamilnews),《出鞘》每天在新浪军事官方微信完整首发。

  本栏目所有文章目的在于传递更多信息,并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。凡本网注明版权所有的作品,版权均属于新浪网,凡署名作者的,版权则属原作者或出版人所有,未经本网或作者授权不得转载、摘编或利用其它方式使用上述作品。


http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-04-16/doc-ifzcyxmv1686107.shtml

中国新型中远程弹道导弹入列 可精确打击舰船(视频)
2018年04月16日 07:18 央视新闻

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  来源:央视新闻


  原标题:火箭军新型导弹武器装备加入战斗序列

  近日,火箭军在某导弹旅组织新型号导弹武器装备授装接装仪式,标志着这个导弹旅由组建扩编、试装试用,转入全面形成作战能力的新阶段。这次整建制装备该导弹旅的武器系统,是我国自行研制、具有完全自主知识产权的新一代中远程弹道导弹。

  它核常兼备,可实施快速核反击,能对陆上重要目标和海上大中型舰船实施常规中远程精确打击,是我军战略威慑和打击力量体系中的新型利器,是作战部队“杀手锏”武器中的骨干力量。它的正式列装,标志着火箭军战略能力又有了新的提升、发挥“三个战略作用”又有了新的战略选项。

  近年来,火箭军大力加强核反击与中远程精确打击能力建设,持续增强战略威慑制衡能力,新型武器装备建设实现新突破,多种新型号导弹武器陆续装备部队,持续强化型号配套、射程衔接、打击效能多样的作战力量体系,“随时能战、准时发射、有效毁伤”核心能力稳步提升。


CCTV exposes our military to install new weapons. The scope of anti-aircraft carriers expands to the second island chain.

CCTV exposes our military to install new weapons. The scope of anti-aircraft carriers expands to the second island chain.


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China's new medium and long-range ballistic missiles China's new medium and long-range ballistic missiles

CCTV reports that the rocket armies have installed new-type long-range missiles and CCTV reports that the rocket armies have installed new types of medium and long-range missiles.

On April 15, CCTV reported that the Chinese PLA People’s Liberation Army’s Rocket Forces formally installed new medium- and long-range ballistic missiles, marking a significant step forward in the Chinese rocketry’s combat capability.


According to related reports, China's new medium- and long-range ballistic missiles have strategic and tactical dual-purpose strikes. They can be strategically attacked against each other's important targets, and can also be used for tactical strikes against each other's important battle nodes. They also have the ability to combat large ships at sea. It is the backbone and backbone of the People’s Liberation Army’s handcuffs.


In general, domestic and foreign missiles with a range of 3,000-5,000 kilometers are called medium-range and long-range missiles. From this range, the second island chain target is within the range of new Chinese long-range ballistic missile strikes. This new type of medium- and long-range ballistic missile is capable of tactical attack. Therefore, it believes that it adopts an advanced guidance system and has a very high accuracy. It can allow missiles to fly thousands of kilometers and can accurately strike ground targets.


Chinese Rocket Force Dongfeng-21D Anti-ship Ballistic Missile Chinese Rocket Dongfeng-21D Anti-ship Ballistic Missile

The days of the superpowers’ ability to glory with one or two aircraft carriers are gone. The days of the superpowers’ ability to glory with one or two aircraft carriers are gone.

The most surprising thing is that this medium and long-range ballistic missile can also strike at sea targets, which means that China’s anti-ship ballistic missile strike capability has taken a big step forward. According to overseas sources, the Chinese rocket army’s active anti-ship The ballistic missile is Dongfeng-21D. It was developed on the basis of the domestic Dongfeng-21 medium-range ballistic missile. It uses a radar guidance system and has the ability to detect and strike targets on the sea surface. According to these data, the guidance system is more complex. The weight increases, so the Dongfeng-21D has a range of about 1500-1700 kilometers. However, this range can already cover the first island chain and push the superpower naval carrier backwards by about 1,000 kilometers. Therefore, the opponent said that the Dongfeng-21D is "World War II." The most serious challenge since it was “a weapon to change the strategic situation” can be said that the superpower navy UCLASS ship-borne unmanned combat aircraft and the Air Force B-21 strategic bomber project have been targeted for Dongfeng-21D. These projects have One feature is to increase the combat tactical radius as much as possible. For example, UCLASS has evolved into an invisible air tanker. It may be the F-35 air refueling to increase the F-35 flight and combat radius, in this case, the Chinese rocket forces need to be further extended anti-ship ballistic missiles, in order to cope with the increase in the other range of combat troops.


MQ-25 is to a large extent deal with the anti-ship ballistic missile MQ-25 to a large extent is to deal with anti-ship ballistic missiles

For ballistic missiles, the load and range are in inverse proportion to each other. The larger the load, the closer the range. In general, the weight of the conventional warhead is greater than that of the strategic warhead. Therefore, the conventional range is less than the strategic type, and the anti-ship warhead needs to be equipped with terminal guidance. The system, but also the wing and the control system are maneuvered, so the weight is greater. Therefore, the anti-ship ballistic missile has a smaller range than the conventional type. The front said that the Dongfeng-21 medium-range ballistic missile has a range of more than 2,500 kilometers, but the Dongfeng-21D The range is only about 1,500 kilometers. From this point of view, the new Chinese medium and long-range ballistic missile has a range of 5,000 kilometers, and the anti-ship ballistic missile type is about 2500-3000 kilometers. This is already an astonishing figure.


It is generally believed that the combat radius of the main carrier-based super Hornet and F-35 heavy-duty aircraft is approximately 1,000 kilometers, and it can reach approximately 2,500 kilometers after an aerial refueling. This will allow China's new medium and long-range anti-ship ballistic missiles to cover this range. The two sides had to perform two aerial refuelings to break away from our range of combat. The difficulty of combat operations increased rapidly. It also meant that the aircraft carrier battle group was located within the range of Chinese anti-ship ballistic missiles near Guam, and the aircraft carrier battle group moved to the battlefield. The process may be continuously hit by the Chinese rocket forces.


The Chinese rockets have installed new types of long-range and long-range missiles, and their combat capabilities have taken a big step forward. Chinese rockets have installed new types of medium and long-range missiles, and their combat capability has taken a big step forward.

In particular, it is necessary to point out that China’s new medium- and long-range anti-ship ballistic missile equipment troops also indicate that China can already monitor the second island chain carrier battle group and can provide target instructions for the new medium- and long-distance anti-ship ballistic missile. The data can also provide other aircraft carrier strike weapons, such as the Chinese Navy aircraft carrier formation, the air force long-range bomber, and the attacking nuclear submarine, forming an overall anti-aircraft carrier system, and effectively improving our military's ability to fight the other aircraft carrier battle group. (Author's signature: Observed by Flying Pig)


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China's new medium- and long-range ballistic missiles can be accurately targeted against ships (video)

April 16, 2018, 07:18 CCTV News


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Source: CCTV News



Original title: New Missile Weapons and Equipment of the Rockets Join the Battle Sequence


Recently, the Rocket Army's installation of a new type of missile weaponry at a certain missile brigade organization marked the beginning of a trial of this missile brigade and the transition to a new stage in the overall formation of combat capabilities. The weapons system of the missile brigades built by the reorganization system and equipment is a new generation of medium and long-range ballistic missiles developed by China and with complete independent intellectual property rights.


It has a regular core and can implement rapid nuclear counterattacks. It can carry out conventional mid-range and long-range precision strikes against important land-based targets and large and medium-sized ships at sea. It is a new weapon in the strategic deterrent and strike force system of our military and is a "killer" for combat troops. The backbone of weapons. Its official lineup indicates that the strategic capabilities of the Rockets have also been upgraded to a new level and that they have played a "three strategic role" with new strategic options.


In recent years, the Rockets have vigorously stepped up their nuclear counterattacks and their long-range precision strike capability, continued to enhance strategic deterrence checks and balances, and achieved new breakthroughs in the construction of new types of weaponry. A variety of new types of guided missiles have been gradually equipped with troops to continuously strengthen model matching and range convergence. Combat the various combat effectiveness systems with effective capabilities, and the core capabilities of “always-on-time, on-time launch, and effective damage” have steadily increased.
 

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Rocket Army Flaunt 18 TELs of DF-26 carrier sinkers IRBM, Eastern Half of Pacific can easily be graveyard and sea burial site for US Navy fleets.




http://slide.mil.news.sina.com.cn/k/slide_8_400_62681.html#p=1

美军航母杀手!我军18辆东风26发射车齐秀肌肉
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近日官媒曝光火箭军新型导弹武器装备加入战斗序列,画面中18辆发射车齐现身。东风26弹道导弹是中国新一代中远程固体燃料弹道导弹,射程覆盖关岛甚至迭戈加西亚群岛,使中国拥有了可靠的打击第二岛链固定目标和大型舰艇等目标能力,是衔接东风-21与东风-31的主力中远程弹道导弹。东风-26中远程弹道导弹射程可达3000至4000公里。(来源:沉默的山羊)


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  • 东风26导弹正式露面后,美国著名中国军事问题专家比尔格茨撰文《介入与反介入:中美反舰弹道导弹大战越演越烈》,对东风26导弹进行了分析,认为东风-26导弹除了使用具有滑翔弹道的新型高速再入飞行器的末制导战斗部以外,

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  • 还首次大量应用了只有俄罗斯白杨M弹道导弹才使用的一系列先进技术,例如可延伸底部发射筒,快速瞄准和发射技术,从而一举成为目前世界上最先进的中远程弹道导弹。
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4 / 16
从东风26发射筒的形状可以明显断定,该导弹很明显能够无依托阵地,在野外机动发射,也就是发射车开出去,随便找个河滩等一小块平地,竖起来就射了。


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奥秘就在于东风26的发射筒,采用了先进的悬垂发射筒和自适应延伸橡胶底座技术,这是野外机动发射的核心技术之一。

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6 / 16
世界上只有两个国家的少数几种弹道导弹采用此类技术,包括中国东风21D、东风26和东风41,以及俄罗斯的白杨M和亚尔斯导弹。


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美国和苏联在上世纪八十年代开始发展陆基洲际导弹的无依托野外发射技术,战略导弹发射车可在无路或泥泞、松软土壤及沙漠等地区活动,在非预定地点发射。发射场不需要预先准备,发射车在机动过程中可随时停车发射。

美军航母杀手!我军18辆东风26发射车齐秀肌肉
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8 / 16
要实现弹道导弹野外随机发射,就必须使用的悬垂发射筒和可延伸底座技术。野外地面承压能力较低,一般只有0.5兆帕以下,导弹被弹出瞬间对地面的负荷很大,高达几十至几百吨,所以导弹需要一个可延伸的底部,延伸筒由橡胶制成,套在发射筒上。


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导弹发射后,在燃气作用下,延伸筒膨胀变形,相当于一个汽车气囊,燃气冲压膨胀形成保护囊,后坐力便通过气囊缓冲渐释放到地面,同时延伸筒能随地面的下陷变形而向下自适应延伸,能够大幅降低对发射场坪的强度要求。


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10 / 16
一直以来,以美国为首的外军一直认为中国导弹都是有限公路机动发射的弹道导弹,平时隐蔽在大型洞窟基地内,战时从洞窟基地开出,进入附近的预设发射阵地,


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11 / 16
这些阵地都事先经过精确的测量和技术保障,发射场坪的基础经过特别设计,由加厚混凝土构筑,能够承受几十吨导弹发射时的后坐力和冲击力。


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12 / 16
场坪有预先埋设的中心定位点,导弹发射车可直接开到定位点,经过简单整备就可以发射。


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东风26在2015年九三大阅兵亮相以后,其外形独特的发射筒所代表的机动发射能力,极大的颠覆了各国情报机关对于东风26导弹的传统判断。



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14 / 16
由于高度保密,美国和日本等国军队情报系统只是在东风-26导弹亮相的前一年知道了型号名称,对导弹性能细节毫不知情,甚至不知道这种导弹已经装备中国的火箭军并形成了战斗力。

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对此美国海军情报局自责这是“21世纪初以来美国最大的军事情报失败案例之一”。(作者署名:科罗廖夫)
 

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http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-04-17/doc-ifzihnen7558773.shtml

中国东风26导弹基地曝光 一个旅就能打三艘航母(图)
中国东风26导弹基地曝光 一个旅就能打三艘航母(图)

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  4月15日,央视七套《军事报道》节目首次公开报道我火箭军某部,接装东风-26新型多用途弹道导弹系统的视频画面,据了解,央视报道称,这次整建制装备该导弹旅的武器系统,是我国自行研制、具有完全自主知识产权的新一代中远程弹道导弹。它核常兼备,可实施快速核反击,能对陆上重要目标和海上大中型舰船实施常规中远程精确打击,军事专家告诉记者,高兴导弹就是我国第三代改进型中远程弹道导弹中的主要型号,外界称为“关岛快递”的东风-26B型多用途弹道导弹,其射程高达5000千米左右,可对4000千米外的海上大型舰船编队和航母编队实施有效的攻击,是第一代反舰弹道导弹(东风-21D)之后,与东风-17高超音速助推-滑翔弹道导弹(第三代反舰弹道导弹)组成2000千米-4000千米反航母打击体系的关键组成之一,此次公开报道引进媒体高度关注是,第一次整建制、将一个中程导弹旅24辆发射车全部都拿出来实属罕见,意味深长。


  军事专家雷泽告诉记者,新一代东风-26B型弹道导弹打航母实际上要解决三个问题,第一是如何不间断的发现和跟踪大型海上目标,实际上,航母等大型水面舰艇在海上作战时非常容易暴露,航母编队的舰船等目标,都是用钢铁制造的,因此作战目标通常是钢铁结构,一般金属结构的辐射、散射特性以及可见光的反照率有明显特征,特别对无线电波具有较强的反射能力,因此,虽然有各种隐身飞机能涂上吸波材料,而航母甲板由于起降飞机要铺设特殊防火涂层,现有吸波材料涂层没办法上甲板,并且在外形上也无法倾斜以偏转雷达波,因此用无线电波对作战目标进行探测,是较为有效的。


  其次,航母通常是在运动状态,但其最大运动速度实在太慢,仅为每小时30节 ,相当于每小时56千米的速度,通常情况下,其巡航速度仅为18节左右,还不到每小时30千米,比大城市内早高峰的行驶车辆快不了多少,通过天基观测系统和远程侦察无人机组成侦察体系完全可以实时跟踪航母作战编队的运行轨迹。通过具备较高的时间分辨率和较高的定位精度的天基遥感观测系统,完全可以对目标的航速和航向进行判断,此外,在海上铺开方圆数十甚至数百海里的航母编队,是各种电磁信号的综合体,除了航母本身装设有各种雷达、指挥、通信、干扰等电子设备外,编队中的其他舰艇及飞机,也都装设有大量的电子设备,构成了相当强烈和巨大的电磁信号源。


  航母编队根本无法做到无线电静默,特别是为了自身的安全,警戒雷达、控制雷达是不能关机的,因此,此时的整个航母编队实际上就如同“在漆黑的夜晚里打开一个手电筒”,其电信信号特种实在太过于显眼,通过高级海洋监视天基平台完全可以实现截获航母及其编队舰只的雷达、通信等无线电信号来实现不间断跟踪。此外,自东风-21D开始,东风-26导弹就配备有侦察飞行弹,可以对目标上空进行巡飞2至4小时的持续拍摄,因此也有人戏称弹道导弹打航母真实可以做到实况直播。我们在一代弹之后,已经基本建成了上述体系,到目前三代弹已经入列,作为二代改进型弹,东风-26B还可以通过自己的末端雷达和红外成像制导进行攻击。


  第二是如何突防,根据航母编队的攻防特点,导弹打航母关键问题是突防,军事专家告诉记者,东风-21D远程反舰导弹的再入弹头采用了一个比较奇特的设计,是一个拉长的长双锥形结构,这个结构被称为变质心再入式弹头,这种反舰导弹弹头的末端机动采用一体化控制,可实现了末端跃升、蛇行、摆式和螺旋等机动方式,而东风-26B的突防能力更是进一步被加强,东风-26B使用了携带穿甲能力极强的大侵彻及爆破钨合金子母弹,众所周知,舰载机起飞要求非常严格,一旦航母飞行甲板受破坏,航母战斗力基本清零,即便不需要击沉航母,单单是战术弹道导弹达到摧毁航母甲板和指挥舰岛,反航母作战就已经完成作战任务。


  请注意新蛋的头椎明显与几年前的老弹不同。

  东风-26B的中段调姿和再入机动阶段,可以通过压低弹道和滑翔飞行,不仅提高射程,加快了飞机速度 、缩短从发射到打击的反应时间,并通过,钨合金子母弹形成“弹幕”打击主甲板以下至飞机库的舱段,具有侵彻、冲击波、破片、引燃等多种破坏效应,除了能对舰载机的作战保障要害部位造成毁伤外,其爆炸所产生的高速破片群对航空母舰上的作战人员、停放的舰载机也具有良好的杀伤效果,此外,“弹幕”成一千米左右直径进行散布攻击,可有效打击航母进行急停或大角度拐弯等非常规机动,企图规避弹道导弹打击,据了解,按照24枚导弹的打击,攻击三艘航母和其编队毫无压力,不要忘了,还有备弹管饱。此外,东风-26B采用无依托发射系统,可以在高速公路上机动随时随地停车打击敌方目标。(作者署名:军事天地)

  《出鞘》完整内容请关注新浪军事官方微信抢先查看(查看详情请搜索微信公众号:sinamilnews),《出鞘》每天在新浪军事官方微信完整首发。


China Dongfeng 26 missile base exposed A brigade will be able to hit three aircraft carriers (Figure)
China Dongfeng 26 missile base exposed A brigade will be able to hit three aircraft carriers (Figure)
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On April 15th, CCTV’s seven “Military Reports” program publicly reported for the first time that a certain part of my Rocket Army had installed a video screen of the Dongfeng-26 new multi-purpose ballistic missile system. According to reports, CCTV reported that the entire system should be equipped. The weapons and weapons system of the missile brigade is a new generation of medium and long-range ballistic missiles developed by China and with complete independent intellectual property rights. It has a regular core, can implement a rapid nuclear counterattack, can carry out regular mid-range and long-range precision strikes against important land-based targets and large and medium-sized ships on the sea. Military experts told reporters that the missile is the third-generation improved medium- and long-range ballistic missile in China. The main model is the Dongfeng-26B multi-purpose ballistic missile known as the "Guangzhou Express". Its range is as high as 5,000 kilometers. It can effectively attack the formation of large ships and aircraft carrier fleets at 4000 kilometers away. After a generation of anti-ship ballistic missiles (Dongfeng-21D), with the Dongfeng-17 hypersonic boost-glide ballistic missiles (third-generation anti-ship ballistic missiles), the key components of the anti-ship missile strike system consisting of 2000km-4000km were formed. First, this public report is highly concerned about the introduction of media. The first reorganization system and the release of all 24 medium-range missile brigades are rare and meaningful.

Lei Ze, a military expert, told the reporter that the new generation Dongfeng-26B ballistic missile carrier hits three problems. The first is how to continuously discover and track large-scale maritime targets. In fact, large-scale surface ships such as aircraft carriers battle at sea. When it is very easy to expose, the aircraft carrier and other targets are all made of steel, so the battle target is usually a steel structure, and the general metal structure has obvious characteristics of radiation, scattering and visible light albedo, especially for radio waves. Strong reflection ability, therefore, although there are a variety of stealth aircraft can be coated with absorbing materials, and the aircraft carrier deck due to the laying of a special fire protection coating, the existing wave absorbing material coating can not be on the deck, and in the shape It is also not possible to tilt to deflect radar waves, so it is more effective to use radio waves to detect operational targets.

Second, the aircraft carrier is usually in motion, but its maximum speed is too slow, only 30 knots per hour, which is equivalent to 56 kilometers per hour. Under normal circumstances, the cruising speed is only about 18 knots. At 30 kilometers per hour, it is much less than the driving speed of the early morning peaks in large cities. The reconnaissance system composed of space-based observing systems and long-range reconnaissance drones can track the operational trajectory of aircraft carrier war formations in real time. Through the space-based remote sensing observation system with high time resolution and high positioning accuracy, it is entirely possible to judge the speed and heading of the target. In addition, the formation of aircraft carriers with a radius of tens or even hundreds of nautical miles spread over the sea is A variety of electromagnetic signal complexes, in addition to the aircraft carrier itself equipped with a variety of radar, command, communications, interference and other electronic equipment, the formation of the other ships and aircraft, are also equipped with a large number of electronic equipment, constitute a very strong And a huge source of electromagnetic signals.

The aircraft carrier formation cannot achieve radio silence at all, especially for its own safety. The warning radar and control radar cannot be turned off. Therefore, the entire aircraft carrier formation is actually like “turning on a flashlight in a dark night”. The telecommunications signal specialization is too conspicuous. The advanced marine surveillance space-based platform can completely realize interception of radio signals such as radars and communications of aircraft carriers and their formation fleets to achieve uninterrupted tracking. In addition, starting from Dongfeng-21D, the Dongfeng-26 missile is equipped with a reconnaissance flying bomb, which can fly on the target for two to four hours of continuous shooting. Therefore, it is also said that ballistic missiles can actually be broadcast live. We have basically completed the above system after the first generation of bombs. At present, three generations of bombs have been listed. As the second-generation improved bomb, Dongfeng-26B can also use its own end radar and infrared imaging guidance to attack.

The second is how to break through. According to the offensive and defensive characteristics of the aircraft carrier formation, the key issue for the missile carrier is penetration. Military experts told reporters that the reentry warhead of the Dongfeng-21D long-range anti-ship missile has adopted a rather peculiar design and is a pull. The long, long, double-tapered structure, known as a variable-center reentrant warhead, uses an integrated control at the end of this anti-ship missile warhead maneuver, enabling end-jumping, meandering, pendulum, and spiral maneuvers. The penetration resistance of Dongfeng-26B is even further strengthened. Dongfeng-26B uses a large penetrating and explosive tungsten alloy cartridge with strong armor piercing capability. It is known that carrier aircraft take-off requirements are very strict, once the aircraft carrier flight deck is Destruction, aircraft carrier combat capability is basically cleared, even if it is not necessary to hit the aircraft carrier, only the tactical ballistic missile destroys the aircraft carrier deck and the command island, and the anti-aircraft carrier operations have completed the combat mission.

Please note that the new egg's head spine is obviously different from that of a few years ago.

Dongfeng-26B's mid-stage maneuvering and reentry maneuvering phase can not only increase the range, speed up the aircraft, shorten the reaction time from launching to combat, but also pass through, forming a “barrage” of tungsten alloy submunitions by depressing trajectory and gliding flight. The damage to the compartments below the main deck to the hangar has various destructive effects such as penetration, shock waves, fragmentation, and igniting. In addition to being able to damage the critical parts of the aircraft carrier's combat security, the high-speed fragmentation group caused by the explosion It also has a good killing effect on combat personnel on board aircraft carriers and on boarded aircraft carriers. In addition, the “barrage” has a diameter of about one kilometer to carry out spread attacks, which can effectively combat the unconventional maneuvering of aircraft carriers such as emergency stops or large-angle turns. In an attempt to circumvent ballistic missile strikes, it is understood that according to the attack of 24 missiles, there are no pressures to attack the three aircraft carriers and their formations. Don't forget that there are prepared missiles. In addition, Dongfeng-26B adopts a non-reliable launch system that can be used to maneuver anywhere on the highway to fight against enemy targets. (Author's signature: Military Space)

For the complete content of "Sheath", please pay attention to Sina Military official WeChat first view (see details, please search WeChat public number: sinamilnews), "Sheath" is completely started in the Sina military official WeChat every day.
 

tun_dr_m

Alfrescian
Loyal
PLA say, Rocket Army Unit 1 barrage of DF-26 firing sinks a whole US Navy carrier battle group == NO FURTHER QUESTIONS.

http://slide.mil.news.sina.com.cn/l/slide_8_400_62787.html#p=1


一次齐射干掉一个美军航母群!我东风-26改导弹旅成军
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1 / 16
能对陆上重要目标和海上大中型舰船实施常规中远程精确打击的火箭军东风-26改导弹旅成军,全旅有22辆导弹发射车, 一次齐射可在4000公里外,干掉一个美军航母战斗群!(鼎盛007兄弟图片)

一次齐射干掉一个美军航母群!我东风-26改导弹旅成军
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2 / 16
东风26导弹正式露面后,美国著名中国军事问题专家比尔格茨撰文《介入与反介入:中美反舰弹道导弹大战越演越烈》,对东风26导弹进行了分析,认为东风-26导弹除了使用具有滑翔弹道的新型高速再入飞行器的末制导战斗部以外,

一次齐射干掉一个美军航母群!我东风-26改导弹旅成军
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3 / 16
还首次大量应用了只有俄罗斯白杨M弹道导弹才使用的一系列先进技术,例如可延伸底部发射筒,快速瞄准和发射技术,从而一举成为目前世界上最先进的中远程弹道导弹。


一次齐射干掉一个美军航母群!我东风-26改导弹旅成军
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4 / 16
从东风26发射筒的形状可以明显断定,该导弹很明显能够无依托阵地,在野外机动发射,也就是发射车开出去,随便找个河滩等一小块平地,竖起来就射了。


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5 / 16
奥秘就在于东风26的发射筒,采用了先进的悬垂发射筒和自适应延伸橡胶底座技术,这是野外机动发射的核心技术之一。


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6 / 16
世界上只有两个国家的少数几种弹道导弹采用此类技术,包括中国东风21D、东风26和东风41,以及俄罗斯的白杨M和亚尔斯导弹。

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7 / 16
美国和苏联在上世纪八十年代开始发展陆基洲际导弹的无依托野外发射技术,战略导弹发射车可在无路或泥泞、松软土壤及沙漠等地区活动,在非预定地点发射。发射场不需要预先准备,发射车在机动过程中可随时停车发射。


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8 / 16
要实现弹道导弹野外随机发射,就必须使用的悬垂发射筒和可延伸底座技术。野外地面承压能力较低,一般只有0.5兆帕以下,导弹被弹出瞬间对地面的负荷很大,高达几十至几百吨,所以导弹需要一个可延伸的底部,延伸筒由橡胶制成,套在发射筒上。


一次齐射干掉一个美军航母群!我东风-26改导弹旅成军
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9 / 16
导弹发射后,在燃气作用下,延伸筒膨胀变形,相当于一个汽车气囊,燃气冲压膨胀形成保护囊,后坐力便通过气囊缓冲渐释放到地面,同时延伸筒能随地面的下陷变形而向下自适应延伸,能够大幅降低对发射场坪的强度要求。


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10 / 16
一直以来,以美国为首的外军一直认为中国导弹都是有限公路机动发射的弹道导弹,平时隐蔽在大型洞窟基地内,战时从洞窟基地开出,进入附近的预设发射阵地,


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11 / 16
这些阵地都事先经过精确的测量和技术保障,发射场坪的基础经过特别设计,由加厚混凝土构筑,能够承受几十吨导弹发射时的后坐力和冲击力。

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12 / 16
场坪有预先埋设的中心定位点,导弹发射车可直接开到定位点,经过简单整备就可以发射。


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东风26在2015年九三大阅兵亮相以后,其外形独特的发射筒所代表的机动发射能力,极大的颠覆了各国情报机关对于东风26导弹的传统判断。


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由于高度保密,美国和日本等国军队情报系统只是在东风-26导弹亮相的前一年知道了型号名称,对导弹性能细节毫不知情,甚至不知道这种导弹已经装备中国的火箭军并形成了战斗力。

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对此美国海军情报局自责这是“21世纪初以来美国最大的军事情报失败案例之一”。(作者署名:科罗廖夫)
 

Agoraphobic

Alfrescian
Loyal
Every nation has their hardware to boast. But so far, only the Yankees have proven theirs by engaging in smaller regional wars, For instance, which fighter aircraft has a better performance record than the F-15 Eagle? Any new generation Sukhois or Migs? - None! Forget the J-20 series, they;d be quickly taken down byTaiwanese F-16 jets or Pinoy Mirage fighters in actual combat. China better start using its hardware in actual situations, and get some real training.

Cheers!
 

tanwahtiu

Alfrescian
Loyal
Still balls carrier for Yankees?



Every nation has their hardware to boast. But so far, only the Yankees have proven theirs by engaging in smaller regional wars, For instance, which fighter aircraft has a better performance record than the F-15 Eagle? Any new generation Sukhois or Migs? - None! Forget the J-20 series, they;d be quickly taken down byTaiwanese F-16 jets or Pinoy Mirage fighters in actual combat. China better start using its hardware in actual situations, and get some real training.

Cheers!
 

Ang4MohTrump

Alfrescian
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http://www.sohu.com/a/230201502_619988


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在中国要守规矩!一群美国大兵酒吧闹事,我国态度坚决:把枪卸了
2018-05-02 23:14 美国 /美军 /中国
依仗着全球第一的军事力量,美军在全球都是横着走,譬如,驻日美军多年来给日本民众带来了巨大困扰,1995年,驻冲绳美军侵犯日本少女引发当地民众大规模抗议活动,一架美国战机低空掠过日本住宅区时失控坠毁造成大量无辜民众伤亡;

在伊拉克,美国驻军动辄就是打骂当地居民,引发伊拉克人民对美军的强烈反感;在英国、德国,同样有大批美国驻军,欧洲民众也饱受美军袭扰。



日本抗议驻日美军“暴行”

不过,面对强势的美军,无论是日本、韩国,还是欧洲国家,都对美军无可奈何,但美军再横,在中国的土地上都得懂规矩!

按照国际惯例,各国大使馆一般都由本国的军事力量保护,据了解,美国在全球100多个国家有149个驻外使领馆,其中有148个由全副武装的美国海军陆战队把守,统称为外美国海军陆战队使馆安全警卫队,只有一个美国驻外大使馆不配枪,那就是美国驻华大使馆。



美海军陆战队

美国驻华大使馆坐落在北京的中央商务区内,如果你去办理签证,只要细心就会发现,这群美国大兵没有身着制服、手持枪械、站在大门口守卫使馆,只是老老实实的呆在使馆内,这对美国来说是一个例外!

这种情况是老一辈领导人给美国定下的规矩,至今延续到今天,其中还有一段小故事:



美驻华大使馆的美国大兵

1973年,中美关系改善,美国在中国驻北京联络处开馆,按照惯例,原本担负美国驻北京联络处的保卫工作的大兵们都是全副武装,不过,很快这种情况就发生变化。

同年,远离国土,生活放浪不羁的美国大兵们开始躁动起来,并在大使馆附近鼓捣出了一家酒吧,美国大兵们彻夜狂欢,在酒吧内释放白天多余的精力,喝多了的美国大兵经常开车吉普、搂着女郎横冲直撞。



酒吧越来越乱,美国大兵闹事者越来越多,我国态度坚决,丝毫不留情面,向美方下达了“最后通牒”,要求美国立即撤走海军陆战队队员。

在1973年11月,基辛格访华,就美国大兵酒吧闹事事件向我国求情,最后,我国同意不撤走这批大兵的请求,但必须就此卸了他们的配枪,也不许身着军装四处晃悠。

时至今日,美国驻华大使馆的美国大兵都是空着手,穿着便装,且站在大使馆内执行守卫任务,外围则由我国武装力量保护着,这种情况,对美国来说,全球仅中国一家!返回搜狐,查看更多



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Be obedient in China! A group of U.S. soldier bar troubled and my country’s attitude was resolute: the gun was unloaded
2018-05-02 23:14
United States
/
US military
/
China

Relying on the world’s first military force, the U.S. military is walking horizontally around the world. For example, the U.S. military stationed in Japan has brought immense trouble to the Japanese people for many years. In 1995, U.S. troops stationed in Okinawa invaded a Japanese girl and triggered a mass protest by the local people. A U.S. fighter plane crashed out of control of a Japanese residential area and crashed out of control, causing massive innocent casualties;

In Iraq, the U.S. garrison is in a hurry to fight local residents, causing the Iraqi people's strong resentment against the U.S. military; in the United Kingdom and Germany, there are also a large number of U.S. troops stationed in the U.S. and the European people are also plagued by the U.S. military.

Japan protests U.S. military "insurgency" in Japan

However, in the face of a strong US military, whether it is Japan, South Korea, or European countries, it has nothing to do with the U.S. military, but the U.S. military has yet to understand the rules on the land in China.

According to international practice, the embassies of various countries are generally protected by their own military forces. It is understood that the United States has 149 embassies and consulates in more than 100 countries and 148 of them are fully armed by the US Marine Corps. For the United States Marine Corps Security Guard outside the United States, only one US embassy in the United States is not equipped with a gun. That is the US Embassy in China.

US Marine Corps

The U.S. embassy in Beijing is located in the central business district of Beijing. If you apply for a visa, you can find out carefully that this group of American soldiers did not wear uniforms, hold firearms, and stood at the gate guarding the embassy. It was just honest. Staying in the embassy is an exception for the United States!

This situation is the rule set by the older generation of leaders to the United States. It has continued to this day and there is still a small story in it:

U.S. Soldiers of the U.S. Embassy in China

In 1973, Sino-U.S. relations improved, and the United States opened the Chinese Liaison Office in Beijing. According to the usual practice, the soldiers who originally took charge of the US Liaison Office in Beijing were fully armed. However, this situation changed very quickly.

In the same year, far from homeland, the American soldiers who lived unrestrainedly began to stir up, and a bar was drummed near the embassy. The American soldiers rallied through the night and released the extra energy of the daytime in the bar. American soldiers who drank too often drove Jeep and squatting girl rampage.

More and more chaos bar, the United States more and more soldiers harassment, my country resolute attitude, no mercy, gave the United States issued an “ultimatum” and asked the United States to immediately withdraw the Marine Corps.

In November 1973, Kissinger visited China and pleaded guilty to the United States on the incident involving American soldiers in the bar. Eventually, my country agreed not to withdraw the request of the soldiers, but they must unload their guns and they must not wear uniforms. Swing around.

Today, the U.S. embassy in the U.S. military is all free-handed, dressed in civilian clothes, and performing security duties in the embassy, while the periphery is protected by our armed forces. This is the case for the United States. Chinese family! Back to Sohu, see more
 

tanwahtiu

Alfrescian
Loyal
Chinese dua kee. China gunboats more dua kee than chao angmoh.

Loser angmoh had history of attacked China 八国联军 and therefore become losers in China.
 

tun_dr_m

Alfrescian
Loyal
US doubtlessly had admitted both by civilian and military sectors, that their warship concepts failed terrible losses to PLA, these included the recent cancellations and deductions of productions of both LCS littoral combat ships & Zumwalt-class destroyers. Both are expensive and full of troubles, and had proven to be useless and incapable of advantageous combat performance.

Now the US copycat the PLA's type 055 practical concept and replicated their features into a FFG(X) project to get manufacturers' proposals for implementations. 5 out of 8 proposals were short-listed for further selections. Chinese knows that these are nothing but lame late attempts to copycat type 055 which Chinese had completed 2 and have 8 more still under constructions.

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-05-04/doc-ifzyqqiq8854204.shtml

美新型战舰竟和我055如出一辙 生产商山寨中国理念
美新型战舰竟和我055如出一辙 生产商山寨中国理念

0
055型万吨大驱
  目前世界海军还在卓有成效的向前迈进的,就只有中国与美国了。现在中国首艘国产航母海试在即,多艘055型万吨大驱在同时建设当中。而美国在矫正了走错的弯路以后,近期又有了一新的动作。

  美国由于错误的预估了中国的发展以及自己的实力,建造了一批以近海对陆打击为主的濒海战斗舰及朱姆沃尔特级驱逐舰。但在发现其根本没有应对052D型的实力时,马上提出了新一代的FFG(X)护卫舰计划,并对其现有舰艇进行了改装工作。

  据美国海军时报4月26日的报道称,雷神公司CEO计划为FFG(X)护卫舰增加超视距导弹,以对敌方舰艇和战机已经打击。在最初的设计中,FFG(X)是作为一款通用型的驱逐、护卫舰来使用的。其在设计之初就柔和了美国现有了一切武器装备系统及技术,甚至还加入了激光炮等武器的理念进去。但雷神公司的这番操作,怎么看起来那么眼熟?

FFG(X)护卫舰模型
  美国对其新一代的FFG(X)护卫舰的任务用途,可以说描述的非常清楚。具备反潜、远距反水面目标能力,可进行电子战任务等,这不就和我们的055型万吨大驱如出一辙么?美国这是摸着中国过河?

  055型导弹驱逐舰可以说是,将是我国海军未来的主力战舰。不仅运用了大量的新技术和设计理念外,还是中国第一款在平台和设计理念上达到世界先进甚至局部领先水平的舰船。所以在055型大驱首次面世后,世界都为之惊艳。

FFG(X)护卫舰概念图
  它也在设计上实现了远程功防兼备的大潜力平台,使未来电磁炮、激光武器等的加入成为可能。同时据网络上的消息称,我国第二艘055型大驱于近日成功下水,这也表示我国舰艇的建造工作一直按着既定计划稳步进行着,055型大驱形成战斗力的日子越来越近。

  一直以来,外媒都各种讽刺中国,没想到风水轮流转,美国也有摸着中国过河的时候。虽然FG(X)护卫舰的造价高达10亿美元(大约60多亿人民币),但整体参数等方面却完全不如中国的055型,令其饱受争议。以此看来,似乎美国造船业的萎缩,令其在研发能力上也略逊于中国了。(作者署名:前沿哨所 智忠)


The U.S. new warships are exactly the same as my 055.
The U.S. new warships are exactly the same as my 055.
0
055-million-ton drive 055-million-ton drive

At present, the world's navy is still making progress in the effective, only China and the United States. Now that China's first domestically-produced aircraft carrier is in the sea trial, several 055-million tons of large-scale floods are being built at the same time. The United States has recently made a new move after correcting the wrong detour.

The United States has built a number of Littoral Combat Ships and Zhumwor-class destroyers, which are mainly offshore and land-based, because of their miscalculations of China’s development and its own strength. However, when it was discovered that it did not respond to the strength of the 052D model, it immediately proposed a new-generation FFG (X) frigate program and refitted its existing ships.

According to a report issued by the US Navy Times on April 26th, Raytheon’s CEO plans to add over-the-horizon missiles for FFG(X) frigates to combat enemy ships and fighters. In its original design, the FFG(X) was used as a general-purpose eviction and frigate. At the beginning of its design, it softened the United States' existing weaponry system and technology, and even added the concept of laser cannons and other weapons. But how does Raytheon’s operation look so familiar?
FFG(X) frigate model FFG(X) frigate model

The mission of the United States for its new generation of FFG(X) frigates can be described very clearly. With the ability to anti-submarine, long-range anti-surface targets, and electronic warfare missions, isn't this exactly the same as our 055-million-ton drive? The United States is touching China's rivers?

The 055 guided missile destroyer can be said to be the main battleship for the future of our navy. Not only does it use a large number of new technologies and design concepts, it is also China's first ship to achieve world-advanced or even local-leading levels in terms of platforms and design concepts. Therefore, after the 055-type drive was first introduced, the world was amazing.
FFG (X) frigate concept map FFG (X) frigate concept map

It is also designed to realize a large potential platform with long-range power and defense, making it possible for future electromagnetic guns, laser weapons, etc. to join. At the same time, according to the news on the Internet, China's second large-scale 055-type flood was successfully launched in recent days. This also indicates that the construction of China’s ships has been steadily carried out in accordance with the established plan. The days of the 055-type flooding have become more and more intense. .

All along, foreign media have all satirized China and did not expect that the feng shui turns around. The United States also has the time to touch China. Although the FG (X) frigates cost as much as US$1 billion (approximately RMB 6 billion), the overall parameters are not as good as China’s 055, making it controversial. From this point of view, it seems that the shrinking of the American shipbuilding industry has made it slightly inferior to China in terms of research and development capabilities. (Author's signature: Frontier Post Zhizhong)
 

Tony Tan

Alfrescian
Loyal
In the pics, blue camouflage uniform men are the naval new ship crew for the sea trial maiden sail. Else where I saw pics of them boarding on a stairs carrying huge full packs, by hundreds. The previous few days, there were only the few dozen advanced party, now the main crews have boarded. Crews only board new ship when it is ready to go sea sail. Before these only the shipyard workers and weapons system fitting crews.

Sea trial will be these shipyard and weapons system guys together with new ship's 1st batch of crews to trial together, and familiarization. If no major problem, the crew will take over from the shipyard.

After navy took over the carrier from shipyard, they will load their missiles, warplanes, helicopters, and related crews, like pilots, air engine engineers, missile engineers etc. Then these will be again tested in sea. Then further trainings for a year.

These new carrier crews accordingly had already been trained on Liaoning carrier plus simulators in navy schools. There is a mock-up flight deck that navy warplanes etc can actually take off and land but on land at naval base. Fixed fake carrier to train all the men before they go to actual carrier.

http://new.qq.com/omn/20180428/20180428A0YZR8.html#p=1

大批海军人员登上国产航母,关键性的试验即将开展
2018
04/28
15:50
新军事网
企鹅号

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2739

  连日来,我海军正在舾装中的航母依旧不断的在进行各项有序工作,舰面人员几乎都为施工方以及设备方的工程技术人员;在28日,舰上突然增加了很多身穿海军迷彩头戴白色头盔的海军人员,估计是接舰的国产航母舰员正式参与到国产航母关键性的试验当中。

http://new.qq.com/omn/20180428/20180428A0YZR8.html#p=1

A large number of navy personnel board domestic aircraft carriers. The key test is about to start.
2018
04/28
15:50
New Military Network
Penguin
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2739

In the past few days, the aircraft carrier of our navy is still constantly carrying out various orderly tasks. The personnel on the surface of the ship are almost all engineers and equipment engineers; on the 28th, the ship suddenly added a lot of wear. Naval Camouflage Navy personnel wearing a white helmet, it is estimated that the domestic carrier aircraft carrier took part in the official participation in the key experiments of domestic aircraft carriers.
 

Tony Tan

Alfrescian
Loyal
Older news from the other day:

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-05-03/doc-ifyuwqfa5608075.shtml


我国产航母将首航:官兵已开始驻舰 船体不断排水
我国产航母将首航:官兵已开始驻舰 船体不断排水

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  作者署名: 科学吐槽秀


  今天上午的大连阳光明媚,国产航母试航前准备工作仍在继续进行中,一大早有大批造船厂工人登舰。与昨天一样,国产航母舷侧水线上方的排水孔仍然在持续不断的向外排水。此外,滑越甲板右舷的天线基座上以及两舷仍未安装鞭状的通信天线,看来正式试航时间还要稍等些日子。不过鞭状天线的安装相对其他设备更为简单,应该不会对试航的时间造成大的影响。


  除了造船厂工人外,大批身穿海洋迷彩、头戴安全帽的海军官兵也早早就登上了国产航母甲板,在造船厂工人登舰的同时,航母甲板上已经有一批列队完毕的海军官兵,带队军官正在讲话。除了飞行甲板以外,在舰岛指挥室上层的平台上也有海军官兵活动,结合近日大批上舰的海军人员活动在航母的各个角落。已经基本可以确定这些海军官兵应该都是国产航母接舰部队成员,目前这些海军官兵正在熟悉这艘新舰。


  据网友昨天下午时拍摄的图片显示,当天下午,曾有两艘油船靠近国产航母,应该是为国产航母进行了燃料补给。此外,在海军官兵从舰岛前方的舷梯登舰的过程中,可以看到有部分海军战士背着已经塞得满满当当的迷彩双肩背包登舰,双肩包一般是我军官兵用于盛放生活用品的,而背双肩包登舰似乎说明他们此次登舰后将开始驻舰生活,这也进一步预示着距离国产航母试航的脚步更近了。


  同样在昨天下午,几天前就运抵舾装码头边的航母专用消防车终于吊运上舰了,除消防车外,还有一辆叉车。而在消防车和叉车上舰之前,用来移动舰载机的牵引车已经提前吊运上舰。


  此外,在昨天上午,国产航母再次进行了动力测试,从舰岛的烟囱内首先冒出了滚滚的黑烟,随后又渐渐变成了白烟。外界分析认为,黑烟出现的原因应该是主机启动时重油燃烧不充分造成的,而运转正常后,这种现象就不会出现了。目前,国产航母已经多次进行了动力测试,对主机动车、锅炉点火升压对试验进行了测试,以确保航母动力系统可以正常工作,为接下来的试航工作做好各项准备。(作者署名: 科学吐槽秀)


My domestic aircraft carrier will be the first flight: officers and soldiers have begun to station the hull
My domestic aircraft carrier will be the first flight: officers and soldiers have begun to station the hull
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Author's signature: Scientific Tucao Show

This morning, Dalian was sunny and the preparatory work for the domestically made aircraft carrier was still in progress. A large number of shipyard workers boarded the ship early in the morning. As yesterday, the drain hole above the domestic waterline on the side of the domestic aircraft carrier is still continuously draining outwards. In addition, the whip-shaped communication antenna was not installed on the antenna base and on both sides of the deck on the starboard side of the deck. It appears that the official trial time will take a little longer. However, the installation of the whip antenna is simpler than other devices and should not have a major impact on the trial time.

In addition to the shipyard workers, a large number of navy officers and men wearing marine camouflage and wearing safety helmets also boarded the domestic aircraft carrier deck early. While the shipyard workers boarded the ship, there were already a number of navy officers and soldiers on the deck of the aircraft carrier. Leading officers are talking. In addition to the flight deck, there are also navy officers and men on the platform on the upper level of the command center of the island. In combination with the large number of naval personnel on board the ship recently, they are active in every corner of the aircraft carrier. It has been basically confirmed that these naval officers and soldiers should all be members of the domestic aircraft carrier fleet. Currently, these navy officers and soldiers are familiar with the new ship.

According to pictures taken by netizens yesterday afternoon, in the afternoon of the same day, there were two oil tankers approaching the domestic aircraft carrier, which was supposed to provide fuel for domestic aircraft carriers. In addition, as Navy officers and soldiers boarded the ship from the ramp in front of the island, some navy soldiers could be seen carrying camouflage backpacks that had been stuffed with full dangling. The shoulder bag was generally used by our officers and soldiers to store daily necessities. However, the fact that the back shoulder bag is used to embark on the ship seems to indicate that they will begin to live in the ship after they board the ship. This further indicates that the distance from the home-made aircraft carrier has become even closer.

Also on the afternoon of yesterday afternoon, a special aircraft carrier that arrived on the edge of the armored docks a few days ago was finally lifted onto the ship. In addition to the fire engines, there was also a forklift. Before the fire trucks and forklifts got on the ship, the tractors used to move the carrier aircraft had been lifted on board in advance.

In addition, on the morning of yesterday morning, the domestic aircraft carrier made a dynamic test again, and the black smoke from the chimneys of the island first emerged, and then gradually turned into white smoke. According to external analysis, the reason for the occurrence of black smoke should be caused by insufficient combustion of heavy oil at the start of the main engine. After normal operation, this phenomenon will not occur. At present, domestic aircraft carriers have carried out power tests several times and tested the tests of the host vehicle and the boiler's ignition and boosting to ensure that the aircraft carrier's power system can work properly, and make every preparation for the next trial. (Author's signature: Scientific Tucao Show)
 
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