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Chitchat Opium and China Military threads

tanwahtiu

Alfrescian
Loyal
....there was a financial collapse in 1837 in angmoh US and they hv2 double dip 2nd illegal opium trade in China again which cause 2nd opium trade war in 1850.

Knn. Angmoh truly bad biz people no sustaniabilty and no accountablilty in businesses.

Business failures most of the time.

 

Agoraphobic

Alfrescian
Loyal
If the Chinese fleet arrived in UK during that time, it was difficult to understand a game of soccer, with the crowds jostling and dwinking beer. Bloody violent blokes these Britishers.

Cheers!

Ang mohs are the best! You see ang mohs make documentaries of ancient China but never chinks making documentaries of ancient Britain.
 

Agoraphobic

Alfrescian
Loyal
The USA has not violated any contract with the UN if I may say so. If there was US violations, if was likely a CIA attempt to subvert some action sanctioned by a major US corporation, nothing to do with the US citizen, In fact, they aren't even supposed to know about such things..

PRC now consumes more Coca Cola than all of Europe. Big Mac sales in PRC are still growing, that the world is crying for vegan thinking to be the norm for the sake of the sanctity of cattle and other animals.

Cheers!

This hypocrie chao angmoh want freedom to own country US but dictate what they want India to buy cotton from them.

Then dictate what they will do to China despite 2 opium trade wars and 1 invasion of China.

Changed French invasion of China to Sino-French war history not an invasion.

Fucking Westerner Europeans histories were evil and bastards can do this to non-white in foreign lands.
 

tun_dr_m

Alfrescian
Loyal
China admitting now that a network of 12 new satellites meant for globally tracking US navy carrier groups, just deployed. So it is global now, any where on surface of water, PLA can find and track US ships, and attacked by Rocket Army, the satellites will update movements of target to lock the warhead on their targets.



http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-02-01/doc-ifyreyvz8086818.shtml

中国连射12颗遥感卫星有啥秘密?全球组网追踪美航母
中国连射12颗遥感卫星有啥秘密?全球组网追踪美航母

0
  作者署名:军评陈光文

遥感30号04组卫星在西昌发射升空
  1月25日,中国在西昌卫星发射中心用长征2号丙火箭第4次同时将3颗遥感卫星同时送上太空。据美国太空飞行网站1月28日报道称,在此之前,长征2号丙火箭还于2017年9月29日、11月25日和12月26日进行了3次“一箭三星”发射,已将另外9颗卫星送入距离地面表面约370英里(约合595公里)的高空轨道。一些分析人士认为,过去几个月中发射的遥感30号01组、02组和03组共9颗卫星,可能正在测试新型电子监听设备或帮助中国军方追踪美国及其他外国海军的部署情况。04组3颗卫星的加入,可能预示着“遥感30号”全球组网已经完成。

遥感30号组成的星组在同一轨道
  从国外的报道来看,凡是冠以“遥感卫星”的发射,一般都是中国军方的任务。这次在1月25日的发射,是“遥感30号”系列卫星星组的第4次发射,但比较一致的是,每次发射都是一箭三星,由此证明这些卫星的功能和体积都相差不大,因此功能也基本相同。按照官方的统一说法,“卫星采用多星组网模式,主要用于开展电磁环境探测及相关技术试验”。这些说法是模糊的,明显是在为军用打掩护,而所谓的电磁环境试验更是明显的军事目的。

遥感卫星星座可监视全球海上目标
  这4次发射,除了第一次和第二次是间隔57天外,后3次的间隔都是正好30天,而这应该是一个计划好的时间差。这4次发射共发射了12枚遥感卫星,地点全部是西昌卫星发射中心,这也充分证明,金牌火箭长征2号丙和西昌基地的准备发射周期是30天,而12枚“遥感30号”卫星所组成的星座,都是围绕着一个目的而布设的。据猜测,这些卫星3颗一小组,共4组组成一个环绕全球的24小时网络。在一小组3颗卫星中,可能各有分工,其中一枚负责电磁监视,一枚负责光学追踪,一枚负责红外跟踪,从而让任何海上目标难以隐身。

美军航母编队走到哪里都在中国掌握中
  在从这第4次发射的卫星轨道来看,美国情报证明是轨道夹角是35°,高度是600公里,因此也应该划入军用侦察卫星的行列。而据美媒分析,在这些卫星之中有一颗称为“遥感30号”的单一卫星,是在2016年5月15日发射的,该星位于极地轨道内,据信是一颗高分辨率成像卫星,奇怪的是不是以星组的形式发射的。如果包括这一卫星,那么“遥感30号”系列就是由5次发射所构成的。由“遥感30号”主星进行搜索确定目标的大概范围,然后其他星组去跟踪监视,从而定位美军舰艇编队在全球任一点的准确位置。

天上有了眼睛中国打航母就容易多了
  分析认为,所有“遥感30号”卫星星座很可能是中国反介入/区域拒止(A2/AD)战略中极为重要的一环,其主要目标就是跟踪和监视美军主要舰艇在港、出航、航行轨迹和部署去向的全部信息,特别是在太平洋-印度洋范围内的美海军行动都会准确的显示在中国指挥部的信息网中。而中国这种包括电磁、光学和红外综合跟踪的模式,恐怕就连美军的隐身战机也难逃被追踪的命运。就此来看,在中国家门口生战,解放军已经做好了万全准备,任何敌手要想挑衅,都必须三思而后行。

  推荐阅读:刚刚接受美国送的军火 老杜马上就变脸 查看详情请搜索微信公众号:sinamilnews
 

tun_dr_m

Alfrescian
Loyal
In today's wars, you have to take away enemy's satellites at the very beginning of war, and replenish / replace your own by surprise - especially after disabling their ability to track your satellite (destroy their ground radars). This is to how to gain upper hand.



http://www.businessinsider.com/china-russia-soon-able-destroy-us-satellites-pentagon-2018-1/?IR=T

The Pentagon says China and Russia will soon be able to destroy US satellites
Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese President Xi Jinping attend a Bilateral Meeting at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit on November 9, 2014 in Beijing, China. 2014 APEC Economic Leaders' Meetings and APEC summit is being held at Beijing's outskirt Yanqi Lake. How Hwee Young - Pool/Getty Images

  • Russia and China are developing anti-satellite missiles and other countermeasures that will destroy, damage, or jam low-earth orbit satellites.
  • The Chinese and the Russians are expected to get this capability within several years.
  • The Joint Staff intelligence directorate report warned "this reality should be considered a crisis to be dealt with immediately."

China and Russia are developing anti-satellite missiles and other weapons and will soon be capable of damaging or destroying all U.S. satellites in low-earth orbit, according to the Pentagon's Joint Staff.

The Joint Staff intelligence directorate, known as J-2, issued the warning in a recent report on the growing threat of anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons from those states, according to officials familiar with the assessment.

The report concludes that "China and Russia will be capable of severely disrupting or destroying U.S. satellites in low-earth orbit" in the next several years, said the officials.

The capability to attack low-earth orbit satellites could be in place by 2020, the officials said.

A Joint Staff spokesman declined to comment, citing a policy of not discussing internal reports.

The J-2 report echoes a similar but less specific warning from Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats in May.

The U.S. Navy's fourth Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) communications satellite, encapsulated in a 5-meter payload fairing lifts off from Space Launch Complex-41, September 2, 2015. US Department of Defense

"We assess that Russia and China perceive a need to offset any U.S. military advantage derived from military, civil, or commercial space systems and are increasingly considering attacks against satellite systems as part of their future warfare doctrine," Coats said. "Both will continue to pursue a full range of anti-satellite weapons as a means to reduce U.S. military effectiveness."

Coats added that both nations are pursuing information operations seeking international agreements that would limit U.S. defenses in space against such weapons.

Russia's space weapons include a "diverse suite of capabilities to affect satellites in all orbital regimes," Coats testified to Congress, including an airborne laser for use against U.S. satellites.

"Ten years after China intercepted one of its own satellites in low-earth orbit, its ground-launched ASAT missiles might be nearing operational service within the PLA," Coats said.

Both China and Russia also are developing debris-removing satellites that Coats said could be used to damage satellites.

Space expert Michael J. Listner said the threat posed by anti-satellite weapons is not new. Both the United States and Soviet Union developed systems to degrade space systems during the Cold War.

"The United States ASAT program, Program 437, took the form of the ASM-135 missile, or the ‘flying tomato can' and was intended by the Reagan administration to be a deterrent to the Soviet co-orbital system," said Listner, founder of Space Law & Policy Solutions, a consulting firm.

Chinese military vehicles carrying DF-21D anti-ship ballistic missiles, potentially capable of sinking a US Nimitz-class aircraft carrier in a single strike, travel past Tiananmen Gate during a military parade to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II in Beijing, September 3, 2015. REUTERS/Andy Wong/Pool

"When Congress defunded development of the ASM-135 there was no follow-on program to provide the desired deterrent effect," Listner said.

"That Russia did not completely scrap its program and China is pursuing its own, leaves the United States with the conundrum of how to deter the threat aside from the hope of resilience."

Resilience is a term used by the Pentagon for protecting, hardening, or replacing satellites in a future conflict.

Low-earth orbit satellites operate between 100 miles and 1,242 miles above the earth and are used for reconnaissance and earth and ocean observation. Those low-orbiting satellites provide key military data used in preparing battlefields around the world for deploying forces in a conflict or crisis.

Also, weather monitoring and communications satellites, including Iridium, Globalstar, and Orbcomm, circle in low-earth orbit.

A number of critical intelligence and military communications satellites also operate in highly elliptical orbits that during orbit travel in an extremely low perigee close to earth where they will soon be vulnerable to Chinese or Russian attack.

Russian S-400 Triumph/SA-21 Growler medium-range and long-range surface-to-air missile systems drive during the Victory Day parade at Red Square in Moscow, Russia, May 9, 2015. Reuters

All these low-earth orbit satellites are now highly vulnerable to Chinese or Russian anti-satellite weapons and capabilities.

Those capabilities range from several types of ground-launched space missiles, to lasers and electronic jammers, to small maneuvering satellites that can maneuver, grab, and crush orbiting satellites.

According to a report by the National Institute for Public Policy, as of 2016 there were 780 satellites in low earth orbit operated by 43 nations. At total of 37 highly elliptical orbit satellites will soon be vulnerable to Chinese or Russian ASATs.

"U.S. space systems are among the most fragile and vulnerable assets operated by the U.S. military," the report by former Pentagon missile expert Steve Lambakis states.

"This vulnerable communications and data collection, processing, and distribution infrastructure is worth billions of dollars and is vital to nearly every activity of the United States and, increasingly, the armed forces of U.S. allies," he stated.

China has deployed two road-mobile ASAT missile systems and is developing two more advanced ground-launched anti-satellite missile systems.

A Chinese HQ-9 missile launcher, a system that the HQ-19 anti-satellite system is based on. Wikimedia commons

"With this range of direct-ascent ASAT capabilities, China may be capable of using hit-to-kill technologies to target and destroy surveillance satellites in low earth orbit, GPS satellites in medium earth orbit, and early warning satellites in geosynchronous orbit," Lambakis said.

"Use of a single nuclear warhead in an ASAT role has the potential to decimate low altitude satellites."

Beijing also has tested satellites that can maneuver close to satellites in space, a capability that can be used to attack them.

Cyber attacks against satellite control stations also are being developed, along with radio-frequency weapons and directed energy beam weapons.

Russia's anti-satellite forces have been rapidly built up in recent years, with estimated investments of $5 billion annually, after a lapse in the program after the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union.

Moscow's space weaponry includes development of a new ground-launch ASAT missile called the Nudol that was tested for the third time in December 2016.

Other weapons include lasers and jammers that can blind or disrupt satellite electronics. Russia also has cyber weapons capable of disrupting satellite control systems on the ground.

Russia's newer surface-to-air missiles, including the S-300, S-400, and S-500 also are capable of hitting targets in low earth orbit, with the S-500 slated for deployment this year.

For maneuvering killer satellites, Russia in 2014 launched four satellites, including one that was observed maneuvering. The Pentagon suspects that satellite will be used for anti-satellite warfare. Two other of the remaining satellites were detected maneuvering after months of remaining in stationary orbit.

The Russian anti-satellite program also is expected to include an interceptor missile launched from a MiG-31 jet, similar to the now-defunct U.S. ASM-135.

Moscow also has developed high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse weapons that could be used disrupt the electronics of all satellites not hardened against EMP attack.

The Pentagon's Defense Science Board also warned of the strategic vulnerability of U.S. satellites in a report last March.

The board report said military satellite communications used for global operations, in particular, "will be contested by a myriad of effects ranging from reversible to destructive."

"The estimated and projected electronic threats against satellite communication (satcom) have rapidly escalated in the last few years and will continue to increase in the foreseeable future," the report, made public in March, said.

"Advances and proliferation in advanced electronic warfare (EW), kinetic, space, and cyber capabilities threaten our ability to maintain information superiority," the report said, noting "under severe stress situations, jamming can render all commercial satcom and most defense Satcom inoperable."

"This reality should be considered a crisis to be dealt with immediately," the board warned.

Read the original article on The Washington Free Beacon. Copyright 2018. Follow The Washington Free Beacon on Twitter.

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More: China Russia military & defense The Washington Free Beacon



https://thediplomat.com/2017/01/how-china-is-weaponizing-outer-space/


How China Is Weaponizing Outer Space
Many of China’s space capabilities are designed to counter U.S. military advantages.

By Harsh Vasani
January 19, 2017


In the highly “informatized” and technologically advanced battles that characterize the 21st century, outer space will play a dominant role. Space assets direct military operations and help in making crucial battleground decisions. In this regard, attempts to weaponize space and command this sphere are to be expected from great powers. The United States and USSR started weaponizing space in the in the 1950s and 1960s respectively, and China is now following suit.

What Is the “Weaponization” of Space?

The weaponization of space includes placing weapons in outer space or on heavenly bodies as well as creating weapons that will transit outer space or simply travel from Earth to attack or destroy targets in space. Examples include the placing of orbital or suborbital satellites with the intention of attacking enemy satellites, using ground-based direct ascent missiles to attack space assets, jamming signals sent from enemy satellites, using lasers to incapacitate enemy satellites, plasma attacks, orbital ballistic missiles, and satellite attacks on Earth targets. These can be further classified into direct-energy and kinetic-energy weapons.

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The weaponization of space is different from the militarization of space, which includes using space-based assets for C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance). The militarization of space assists armies on the conventional battlefield, whereas via the weaponization of space, outer space itself emerges as the battleground, sometimes referred to as the “fourth frontier of war.”

Today’s space-faring nations use their Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Systems, which include long-range ICBMs, as an auxiliary system capable of destroying space-based assets. The difference between BMD and ASATs lies mainly in the software and control algorithms used to detect, track, and home in on a satellite as compared to a warhead. China has been making impressive headway in its ICBM program and in theory, these ICBMs can target U.S. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) satellites. There have been debates among scholars on the utility of BMD system as ASAT (Anti-Satellite) weapons. However, Brian Weeden of the Secure World Foundation asserts that there is no meaningful difference between a midcourse ballistic missile defense system and a hit-to-kill ASAT weapon.

Weeden argues that “because midcourse ballistic missile systems are intended to destroy warheads traveling at speeds and altitudes comparable to those of satellites, all midcourse ballistic missile defense systems have inherent ASAT capabilities.” He asserts that these BMD systems are more effective as anti-satellite weapons than as missile defense systems, since most satellites are easier to detect, track, and target than warheads, which are likely to be accompanied with penetration aids designed to confuse a potential defense. The difference between BMD and ASATs lies mainly in the software and control algorithms used to detect, track, and home in on a satellite as compared to a warhead.

China’s Space Program

In June 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping spoke to astronauts at the launch of the Shenzhou X manned mission and said that China will take bigger steps in space exploration in pursuit of its “space dream.” He acknowledged that the space dream is part of the dream to make China stronger. “With the development of space programs, Chinese people will take bigger strides to explore further into space,” he said. In another occasion, on April 24, 2016, marking China’s first “space day,” the president asked scientists to help realize China’s dream of becoming a global space giant. In both the instances, the Chinese president seemed to have benign intentions behind China’s space modernization and ambitions; however, open source literature available on China’s space dreams points out that the Chinese strategic community sees space as the ultimate high ground, the key to military success on the terrestrial battlefield.

Washington believes that underlying the various civilian aspects of China’s space program is an active military component. A 2015 report prepared by the U.S. Department of Defense suggests that China has invested in advanced space capabilities, with particular emphasis on “satellite communication (SATCOM), intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), satellite navigation (SATNAV), and meteorology, as well as manned, unmanned, and interplanetary space exploration.” The report claims that along with its civilian space program, China continues to develop a variety of capabilities designed to limit or prevent the use of space-based assets by adversaries during a crisis or conflict, including the “development of directed-energy weapons and satellite jammers.”

A report prepared for the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission states that the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) recognizes that in a time of war it must deny enemies the use of strategic information about troop and ship movements, incoming missiles, navigation, communication, etc, along with depriving its opponents the use of C4ISR systems. The report goes on to state that “Chinese analysts assess that the employment of space-based C4ISR capabilities by potential adversaries, especially the United States, requires the PLA to develop capabilities to attack space systems. Based on this assessment, Chinese analysts surmise that the loss of critical sensor and communications capabilities could imperil the U.S. military’s ability to achieve victory or to achieve victory with minimal casualties.”

There is considerable merit in Washington’s claims about the dual-use nature of China’s space program. For instance, Colonel Li Daguang, writing in his book Space War published by National Defense University in 2001, recommends that the Chinese should combine military and civilian technology and integrate peacetime and wartime facilities. His rationale was that space equipment is costly to develop and maintain, hence it is important to have civil-use technology that can also have military applications.

Evolution of China’s ASAT Weapons Capability

A brief survey of recent tests by Beijing confirms that China is rapidly improving its counter space program and making advances in its anti-satellite systems. China’s first ASAT test was conducted in May 2005 and its capabilities have come a long way since. Most notably, a 2007 test destroyed a redundant Feng Yun 1-C weather satellite owned by China, leaving over 3,000 dangerous pieces of debris in space. The test was conducted in low Earth orbit (LEO), approximately 800 kilometers above Earth.

A 2013 test by Beijing involved its new missile, the DN-2 or Dong Neng-2, and the test was conducted in “nearly geosynchronous orbit,” where most of the United States’ ISR satellites are located. The direct ascent test, launched from Xichang, reached an altitude of 18,600 miles. On October 30, 2015, China tested the DN-3 exoatmospheric vehicle, reported to be able to destroy U.S. satellites. Chinese press reports said the test was a missile defense interceptor flight test. However, The Washington Free Beacon quotes unnamed defense officials as saying that the DN-3 is “primarily a direct-ascent missile designed to ram into satellites and destroy them, even if intelligence assessments hold that the weapon has some missile defense capabilities.”

Along with direct-ascent ASAT weapons, China is also believed to be developing other space weapons. In June 2016, China launched the Aolong-1 spacecraft on a Long March 7 rocket. China claims that the Aolong-1 is tasked with cleaning up space junk and collecting man-made debris in space. However, other reports suggest that the spacecraft, equipped with a robotic arm, is a dual-use ASAT weapon. The Aolong-1 is believed to be the first in a series of spacecraft that will be tasked with collecting man-made space debris. Quoting an unnamed researcher with the National Astronomical Observatories in Beijing, the South China Morning Post points out that it is unrealistic to remove all space debris with robots; rather, for the People’s Liberation Army the robot is a potential ASAT weapon.

Beijing’s recent space activities indicate that it is developing co-orbital anti-satellite systems to target U.S. space assets. Co-orbital anti-satellite systems consist of a satellite “armed with a weapon such as an explosive charge, fragmentation device, kinetic energy weapon, laser, radio frequency weapon, jammer, or robotic arm.” Besides the “hard-kill” methods, Beijing is also testing soft-kill methods to incapacitate enemy satellites. For instance, China has been acquiring a number of foreign and indigenous ground-based satellite jammers since the mid-2000s. These jammers are designed to disrupt an adversary’s communications with a satellite by overpowering the signals being sent to or from it. The PLA can use these jammers to deny an adversary the access to the GPS and other satellite signals. Directed energy lasers are also a soft-kill method that could be used in an anti-satellite mission. China has been committing resources to the research and development for directed energy weapons since the 1990s.

China’s Counterspace Program: Aimed at the U.S.

The Chinese believe that the greatest threat to them comes from the United States. To counter the United States’ conventional strength and gain strategic parity, Chinese strategists believe, Beijing will need to strike at the U.S. Achilles heel — Washington’s over-reliance on satellites for C4ISR. Beijing plans to exploit the vulnerable space infrastructure of the United States in the case of a war.

According to a recent RAND report, space and counterspace operations would be important elements in any armed confrontation between the United States and China. The transformational warfighting capabilities that U.S. military forces have developed since the end of the Cold War are largely enabled by “satellite support, and space-based ISR and communication connectivity would be especially important in the broad expanses of the Western Pacific theater.”

The PLA’s interest in the use of space for military purposes gained momentum after the 1991 Gulf War, which has been referred to as the “first space war,” and has only increased since. According to some Chinese analysts, “the U.S. military relies upon space for 70‒80 percent of its intelligence and 80 percent of its communication.” Some Chinese writings also attribute an almost omnipotent quality to U.S. space-based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) and conclude that the U.S. receives exquisite intelligence from these platforms.

According to Martin France and Richard Adams, however, “The PLA’s development of ASAT weapons is primarily not a reaction to U.S. space control initiatives. It is driven instead by very practical considerations of regional security and influence, and the desire to conduct asymmetric warfare against a superior foe if conflict arises.”

France and Adams believe that Beijing seeks to offset the dominance of U.S. conventional forces by exploiting their dependence on spaceborne information assets. China also hopes to guarantee the viability of its nuclear deterrent by holding the critical space-segment of American missile defense systems at risk. Finally, the Chinese space program also contributes to the PLA’s anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) capabilities by providing critical C4ISR support to long-range precision strike weapons and providing the ability to threaten U.S. space-based assets.

The DN-2 2013 test jolted Washington and made the United States realize that crucial national security satellites, parked in geostationary earth orbit, are well within the reach of Beijing. As a response, Pentagon announced the launch of a “Space War Center” to counter threats from China and Russia in space, part of a $5 billion boost in space security spending for the Department of Defense. However, over a year and a half later, precious little has come of the Center.

The United States, aware of the enormity of the threat, needs to do a lot more to ensure that space remains a sanctuary instead of turning into a battleground. China and Russia have been pushing for a debate on a Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS) treaty, which would ensure that states observe a prohibition on space weaponization. Russia and China have also submitted a draft treaty to the UN preventing the placement of weapons in outer space. However, in all likelihood, the United States would not want an arms-control treaty if it means limiting the U.S. National Missile Defense system (which has de facto ASAT applications).Washington withdrew from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in 2001 and went on to develop ground and sea-based missile defenses that can also act as ASAT weapons. So far the biggest boulder to an international treaty bringing more transparency and arms control to outer space is the United States.

Harsh Vasani is a Postgraduate Research Scholar at the Department of Geopolitics and International Relations, Manipal University.



http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-02-01/doc-ifyrcsrw3955649.shtml

美称中国已部署两套公路机动反卫星系统 瞄准美GPS
2018年02月01日 10:36 环球网

0
  来源:环球网


  [环球网军事2月1日报道]美国“华盛顿自由灯塔”网站1月30日发表题为“五角大楼:中俄即将能够摧毁美国的卫星”的文章,先是提到五角大楼情报部门的一份报告警告中俄将具备摧毁美国低轨道卫星的能力,紧接着就挨个盘点“中俄强大的反卫星武器”。不过中国专家表示,这篇文章关于中俄反卫星武器的部分充分展示了作者的想象力,而关于S-300能击落低轨道卫星等描述更是缺乏最基本的军事常识。另外,该文章对目前美军已具备反卫星能力的多种反导系统视而不见。

  “华盛顿自由灯塔”网站的报道称,美国国防部联合参谋部称,中国和俄罗斯正在研制反卫星导弹和其他反卫星武器,不久将能够破坏或摧毁美国所有近地轨道上的卫星。文章称,据熟悉这项评估报告的官员称,联合参谋部情报局(J-2)在最近的一份关于这些国家反卫星(ASAT)武器威胁日益增加的报告中发出警告。有美官员说,攻击近地轨道卫星的能力将在2020年形成。

  报道称,中国已经部署了两套公路机动反卫星导弹系统,并正在研制两种更先进的地面反卫星导弹系统。文章称,有了一系列直接上升反卫星能力,中国可能使用直接撞击技术瞄准和摧毁近地轨道上的监视卫星、中轨道上的GPS卫星和地球同步轨道上的预警卫星,也存在使用单个核弹头对近地轨道卫星进行大规模杀伤的潜在可能。

  报道称,近年俄罗斯的反卫星力量迅速增加,估计每年投资额达到50亿美元。“莫斯科的太空武器包括被称为Nudol的新型地基反卫星导弹,该导弹于2016年12月进行了第3次测试。其他武器包括激光器和干扰机,可致盲或干扰卫星的电子系统。”文章称,俄罗斯还拥有能够干扰地面卫星控制系统的网络攻击武器。此外,俄罗斯新型地对空导弹,包括S-300、S-400和即将部署的S-500也能够击中近地轨道的目标。

  不过,中国专家表示,即便按照美国国防部的说法,中俄反卫星能力也只能在2020年形成,但文章却认为中俄已形成了多种反卫星能力。该文很多内容显示作者的想象力太丰富,关于中国用反卫星导弹攻击中高轨卫星、以及用核弹头攻击近地轨道卫星的说法更是信口开河。而S-300、S-400这种只能在大气层内使用的防空系统,也“被具有了反卫星能力”,实在令人感到哭笑不得。实际上,美国目前的“标准-3”系列拦截弹和陆基反导拦截弹具有实实在在的反卫星能力,而且已经实战部署,“标准-3”还曾进行过实弹拦截卫星。文章对这种已构成的威胁却只字不提。▲ (张亦驰)
 

tun_dr_m

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US is only able to see a very limited view of the Sino-Russian anti satellite strengths, there are very heavy missiles 20~30 tons as big as DF-26 for this purpose. There are also smaller not just TELs on the land, but also from submarines, warships, and heavy bombers, because there is need to track and destroy satellites which orbit are not currently over above Chinese territory. Not only to launch a missile at them, but also more importantly to have radar guiding the attack.
 
http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-02-01/doc-ifyrcsrw5458902.shtml

中国新卫星传回首批高清图 台北地标清析度惊人(图)
中国新卫星传回首批高清图 台北地标清析度惊人(图)

0
  近日,由航天科技集团抓总研制的高景一号03、04星传回首批高清新图,图像指标再进一步。这标志着我国首个0.5米高分辨率商业遥感卫星星座四星组网完成。

  就在半个多月前,2018年1月9日,高景一号03、04星由长征二号丁运载火箭以一箭双星方式成功发射,是2018的“开门红”卫星。

  以下是6张高景一号03、04星传回的高分辨率影像图。从故宫到滇池,从三亚到台湾,从迪拜机场到哈利法塔,图片清晰,景象壮美,一览寰宇小。


  故宫是中国明清两代皇家宫殿。图中可见太和殿金碧辉煌,琉璃瓦熠熠生辉,参观人群络绎不绝。


  101大楼位于中国台湾台北市,是当地地标性建筑,楼高508米,形成长长的阴影,屋顶棱角分明,仔细观察可以看出层层相叠的建筑特色。


  滇池国际会展中心是云南的标志性建筑。图中建筑群在太空中俯瞰如同孔雀开屏的羽毛,色彩丰富鲜艳,网状的钢筋结构清晰。


  三亚是具有热带海滨风景特色的国际旅游城市。图中大东海旅游区配套设施完善,海滩上的遮阳伞和沙滩椅整齐排列,人头攒动。


  迪拜国际机场是世界最繁忙的国际航空港之一,可起降目前所有机型。图中正在机场跑道准备起飞的飞机为空客380,机场地标清晰可见。

  高景商业遥感卫星系统由中国航天科技集团有限公司所属五院抓总研制,由中国航天科技集团有限公司所属专业公司中国四维测绘技术有限公司负责商业化运营。


  2018年1月9日,长征二号丁运载火箭发射高景一号03、04星(董东 摄)

  高景一号03、04星进入预定轨道后,与同轨道的高景一号01、02星组网运行。高景一号四星组网,观测效能大幅提高,可达到全球任意地区一天内重访,全球80%以上地区可实现每天两次重访,同时,可实现“准实传”,即边拍边传,大幅提高在轨图像传输效率。

  高景一号将为全球用户提供全天候对地遥感数据服务和应用系统解决方案,广泛服务于政府管理、农林水利、资源环境、应急减灾、互联网、金融保险等众多传统及新兴行业。(文图素材由航天科技集团中国四维提供)
 

tun_dr_m

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And yet just another launched by Xijinping. At times a few satellites within same week. One is usually more advanced than previous.

https://3g.163.com/all/article/D9LD...from=channel2016_all_index_newslist#offset=11


中国成功发射首颗电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”
2018-02-02 16:19 新华社
新华社甘肃酒泉2月2日电 2日15时51分,我国在酒泉卫星发射中心用长征二号丁运载火箭成功将电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”发射升空,进入预定轨道。这标志我国成为世界上少数拥有在轨运行高精度地球物理场探测卫星的国家之一。

记者从国防科工局、国家航天局获悉,“张衡一号”是我国全新研制的国家民用航天科研试验卫星,是我国地球物理场探测卫星计划首发星。

“‘张衡一号’覆盖范围广、电磁环境好、动态信息强、无地域限制,将开展全球空间电磁场、电离层等离子体、高能粒子沉降等物理现象的监测,为地震机理研究、空间环境监测和地球系统科学研究提供新的技术手段。”国防科工局系统工程司副司长赵坚说。

2013年,国防科工局、财政部共同批复电磁监测试验卫星工程。卫星、运载火箭分别由中国航天科技集团五院航天东方红卫星有限公司、上海航天技术研究院研制;发射和测控任务由中国卫星发射测控系统部负责;应用系统由中国地震局建设和运行。

航天东方红卫星有限公司周峰总监表示,“张衡一号”具有多载荷集成、高精度定标等特点,载有高精度磁强计、等离子体分析仪、高能粒子探测器等8种有效载荷。此外,卫星所载的意大利高能粒子探测器,将与中方研制的高能粒子探测器互为补充联合探测。

“张衡一号”总体技术指标达到国际先进水平,部分技术指标达到国际领先水平。“‘张衡一号’创造了多项国内‘首次’——首次实现低地球轨道卫星高精度电磁洁净度控制,弥补了我国天基科学探测领域发展的短板;首次实现在轨精确磁场探测,卫星装载高精度磁强计、感应式磁力仪载荷,有望获取宝贵的全球地磁场数据。”电磁监测试验卫星工程首席科学家申旭辉说。

此次任务搭载发射了“少年星一号”等六颗国内外微小卫星。

“少年星一号”微小卫星源于10多万中小学生的创意和梦想,是我国首颗教育共享卫星。所有建有卫星测控分站的中小学校和教育机构,均可使用“少年星一号”数据开展航天科普教育。

作者:余晓洁 李国利

(原标题:我国成功发射首颗电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”)

(责任编辑:李天奕_NN7528)
 

taksinloong

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Loyal
Long March Rocket delivered advanced precision electromagnetic detection satellite today.

我国成功发射首颗电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”
2018年02月02日 18:56:43 | 来源: 新华网

  2月2日15时51分,我国在酒泉卫星发射中心用长征二号丁运载火箭成功将电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”发射升空,进入预定轨道。这标志我国成为世界上少数拥有在轨运行高精度地球物理场探测卫星的国家之一。新华社发(汪江波 摄)


我国成功发射首颗电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”
2018年02月02日 18:56:43 | 来源: 新华网

  2月2日15时51分,我国在酒泉卫星发射中心用长征二号丁运载火箭成功将电磁监测试验卫星“张衡一号”发射升空,进入预定轨道。这标志我国成为世界上少数拥有在轨运行高精度地球物理场探测卫星的国家之一。新华社发(汪江波 摄)










 

tun_dr_m

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Loyal
2 more Beidou type 3 GPS navigation / SMS satcom satellites launch by 1 rocket today.


http://www.sohu.com/a/222433796_162522?_f=index_news_2


再次“一箭双星”!北斗第三次组网卫星今天成功发射
2018-02-12 20:03 来源:环球网
原标题:再次“一箭双星”!北斗第三次组网卫星今天成功发射



梁珂岩/摄

【环球时报赴西昌特派记者 范凌志】2018年2月12日,我国采取一箭双星方式,在西昌卫星发射中心成功发射了北斗三号工程第五、六颗组网卫星。继1月12日以来,短短一个月,长征三号乙/远征一号火箭先后两次“一箭双星”发射,成功将四颗北斗卫星送入太空。这也是2018年以来,长征系列火箭完成的第7次成功发射,平均不到一周实施一次发射的频率让人惊叹。近日,《环球时报》记者走访西昌卫星发射中心指挥控制中心、技术勤务站等地,见证了一线科技人员及后勤保障人员如何开启“高强密度发射的2018”。

走进西昌卫星发射中心指挥控制中心大厅

常在电视中看到的卫星发射的指挥中枢到底什么样?9日,《环球时报》记者走进西昌卫星发射中心指挥控制中心,在指挥大厅外墙,“严肃认真、周到细致、稳妥可靠、万无一失”十六个醒目的烫金大字非常醒目,让参观者未进门就感受到工程师们紧张的工作状态。

指挥控制中心指挥显示分系统工程师胡杰介绍说,这个大厅是发射场系统的数据处理中心和通信交换中心,同时也是专家们的指挥决策中心。

《环球时报》记者看到,大厅面积约等同于一座影院,总共分为投影显示区、试验工作区和贵宾区三部分,各功能区被分割得一目了然。最前方,是最为外界所熟悉的投影显示区,相当于“影院”的大屏幕,不同的是,这里由两块屏幕构成,分别是上方的时间条屏和下方的大屏幕,胡杰介绍说:“时间条屏主要作用是显示任务的进程、时间和火箭的关键飞行时序以及发射场区的气象信息。大屏幕则用来显示火箭飞行的状态、速度、高度等信息,以及三维仿真的场景,以供指挥员和现场专家提供现场决策。”



范凌志/摄

从位置上看,正对着大屏幕的四排座位原本应当是“影院”的观众区,其实不然,这里是试验工作区,是各系统指挥员指挥工作的地方,胡杰告诉《环球时报》记者:“第一、二排是我们工作人员就位的工作区和五大系统的专业化指挥区, 第三四排是专家决策区,在火箭出现异常需要重大决策的时候,在这两排进行决策。”真正的观众区则在更后排,与工作区相分离,这里是受邀观众以及不参与指挥任务的领导和专家观摩的区域。

记者来到指挥大厅时,距离发射还有近3天时间,但已有工作人员在此忙碌工作,工程师王晟向《环球时报》记者介绍说,他们已经完成合练,“西昌与其他各地的测控系统已经连起来了,测试正常,只等最后发射。”

战斗在第一线的还主要有中国航天科技集团一院长三甲系列火箭发射队,胡炜是此次火箭发射任务的01号指挥,他的工作是在发射过程中协调各个系统的正确性和可行性,被同事们称为火箭的COO(首席运营官)。面对春节前需要在一直坚守岗位,他说“每一次发射对我们来说,都是日常工作、本职工作。虽然平凡,但是需要我们用一次次的成功来支撑航天强国的建设。”

另一个名称里也带“01”的岗位则更为外界所熟悉,这就是西昌发测站任务“01”号指挥员,即在电视直播中经常听到的喊出倒计时“10、9、8、7。。。点火”的人。本次发射的“01”号指挥员是鄢利清,在接受《环球时报》记者采访时,他表示,这是他参与的第100次发射任务。

看起来倒数计时报数并不是很难,但真实情况并非如此,以节奏把控来说,“01”号指挥员的口令要与计时器完美合拍。“比如‘两分钟准备’的‘备’字喊出,时间就刚好到0秒。对于‘10、9、8、7’基本上在倒计时牌变化的同时就要把秒喊出来。”鄢利清说,在火箭发射时,每一个阶段的工作都要以“01”指挥员口令为准,如果前一个时段出现问题,就要随时终止或调整发射,以确保每一个测试项目覆盖全面以及系统之间的匹配协调。



梁珂岩/摄

“金牌保障人”坚守保发射

“没近看过,只能在山头看火箭升起来。”在被《环球时报》记者问到是否在现场看过发射时,已在西昌卫星发射中心工作了26年的油料存储库区油料员姚晓兵这样回答。同样从事航天事业,他的工作显得默默无闻:守护收油区、发油区、储油区和输油管线。26年来,他每天都沿着2千多米的输油管线爬山检查,即使收发油实现了自动化,他仍然坚持亲自检查,因为他固执地认为“系统发现就晚了”。对于北斗三号卫星密集发射的强度,姚晓兵告诉记者,从发油量上就能感觉出来:“现在密集发射,发油量比原来增加了一倍多。不管是啥岗位,我就是想着把自己工作做好,别耽误了任务。”

姚晓兵所在的技术勤务站在大凉山深处,是个对于中国航天人具有特殊意义的地方,这里有棵“扎根树”,是西昌卫星发射中心的开拓者们刚到大凉山时栽下的,至今已度过近50个春秋。《环球时报》记者来到这里时,阳光很好,碧蓝的天空下,尚未拔节的树干更显坚实。

就在“扎根树”不远处,是一个液氮液氧生产站。技术勤务站氮氧站站长黎伦说,液氮液氧的生产及保障三级火箭的燃料液氢是氮氧站的主要责任,这是一项高危工作。“液氢如果泄漏,达到一定浓度时,即使一根针掉到地上产生的能量就能引发爆炸。除了爆炸,这些极低温液态气体造成的冻伤也很危险。”

氮氧站的工作人员向《环球时报》做了一个小实验来验证黎伦的说法,他打开液氮储存钢罐的阀门,伴随着剧烈的“嘶嘶”声,液氮迅速喷出并蒸发,喷口附近形成一团白雾,工作人员折下一根带着绿叶的树枝,放到喷口处数秒钟,再拿给记者,记者发现绿叶已经完全变硬,轻轻一掰就碎掉。等工作人员关闭阀门时,喷口所对的地面,以及喷气管道上都已经结了一层厚厚的白霜。“如果液氮长时间接触到皮肤,会造成组织坏死。”

北斗卫星上天离不开这些“金牌保障人”,在采访中,《环球时报》记者注意到,坚守这些岗位的工作人员很多都是将妻儿接来,把家安在了单位,几十年从事着看上去枯燥、低调又危险的工作。



范凌志/摄

“去任务化”应对高强度任务

据中国航天科技集团有限公司透露,今年我国长征系列运载火箭预计将执行以北斗卫星组网、嫦娥四号探月为代表的35次发射任务,发射密度将再创历史新高。长三甲系列火箭总指挥岑拯表示,根据2018年全年的任务情况,很多发射队员有将近一年的时间需要扎根在发射场执行火箭发射任务。2018年春节进行短暂休息后,3月初发射队又要再赴发射场执行下一发任务。“确保火箭高质量,确保发射发发成功是我们的责任,把成功作为信仰是我们这支队伍最本真的追求” 岑拯说,“今天每一次的成功就是对未来更好更快发展的支撑。”

从全年的发射计划看,长三甲系列火箭平均26天就要进行一次发射。而且生产现场通常是同时有2-3发火箭并行开展工作。“如果不从生产管理上想办法,年度计划将没有任何余量” 岑拯说。因此,研制团队创新提出了“去任务化”的管理方法。

之前的火箭研制和生产通常都是围绕一次具体的发射任务进行生产、总装。“‘去任务化’就是指实现火箭各个单机、系统和整箭的产品化、通用化、组批量生产。”岑拯解释说,“去任务化”意味着单级火箭、单发火箭完成总装后,可以灵活调整其承担的发射任务,只要卫星和火箭接口保持一致,针对具体任务调整软件即可满足发射任务需求。《环球时报》了解到,目前这种“产品化”式的研制进程正在长征系列火箭的研制一线进行推广、调整,未来“流水线”式的火箭生产总装方式有望成为现实。

作者:范凌志返回搜狐,查看更多

责任编辑:孙梦璠 UN883

声明:本文由入驻搜狐号的作者撰写,除搜狐官方账号外,观点仅代表作者本人,不代表搜狐立场。
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Tony Tan

Alfrescian
Loyal
Huat Ah! Ang Moh finally learned the true intent of PLA's PL-15 A-A missile! It is certainly to kill Ang Moh's AWACs & Air-Refuel Tankers, these are usually the targets hard to engage with A-A missiles because both, that they are usually too distance away and too protected to get close to kill. PL-15 is an extra-long range A-A missile. Estimate range 400-500km aka when fired from SG53 air space can kill AWACs / Tankers almost at Penang air space.

AWACs & Tankers & Troop Transporters (e.g. C-17 C-5 C-130) are all slow aircraft targets, unlike fighter jets. Usually are also High Value Targets, because once hit, it cost the enemy huge losses and huge mission compromise and handicap & in case of troop carriers hundreds of death toll.

These targets usually stay well apart and away from where your fighter jets can go for a kill, usually gets fighter escort, and fighter to engage you when you come for a kill. However, now with PL-15. It can engage & kill you far before your fighter escort could engage / kill them. So, they will come to 400km range to fire PL-15 & leave, and your escorting fighter jets can only engage them at the most 120km due to USAF LRAAMs missile range MAX Limit.

With PL-15 PLA can just shoot from 400~500km range at highest value targets, down them and happily and safely return to base, and USAF escort jets are absolutely unable to engage them, and are at highest self-risk, if PLA got extra PL-15 balance after downing the AWAC / Tanker / Transporters, they will certainly down the escorting fighters as well. No escape and no chance to fire back, because they can never be reached!

This can be visualized / illustrated:

USAF fighter jets escort AWAC near Penang air space, PLA AWAC discovered from Indon air space (detection range over 850km possible) calls PLA 3 jets armed with PL-15 from Jakarta, when reached SG53 air space, volley of PL-15 A-A missiles fired at USAF near Penang @MACH4 speed (10mins flight time), the tracking command is by PLA AWAC from Indon air space. PLA attack jets can return to base after fired PL-15. There is nothing USAF can do to dodge as the targets are slow moving heavy targets and PL-15 comes at 4900km/h speed. To shoot at PLA jets is impossible unless USAF jets were at 120km from SG53 air space (in Johore nearer than Muar) for MAX MACH2 USAF jets to fly from Penang to Muar needs 15 mins. The PLA jets already returned and reach base before you chase. Besides they can use PL-15 to kill you any time, your chase will be suicidal.

The rather realistic scenario is when USAF fleet got shot down at Penang air space from SG53 air space, their furthest LRAAMs max range could only hardly reach KLIA. Can not reach SG53. That means they can not return fire at PLA jets at all. This absolute air superiority advantage. Kill Range Advantage, like a rifle shooting against a hand gun!


http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-02-17/doc-ifyrpeif1977405.shtml

英媒称中国歼20年内将装备最强PL15导弹 专打预警机
英媒称中国歼20年内将装备最强PL15导弹 专打预警机

0

  狗年春节前夕,空军接连公布歼20列装作战部队的消息,给国人新春佳节注入一针“兴奋剂”,令人振奋不已。俗话说好事成双,这不英国专家也给咱们送上一份大礼——射程更远、威力更猛的专打对手加油机预警机的新型空空导弹“霹雳-15”导弹今年年内将装备。

  正所谓好马配好鞍。歼20这种中国自主研制的新一代隐身战斗机,不仅在国内最牛,在世界上也是数一数二的。发挥这种攻击平台最大优势,最好的方法就是配上最牛的导弹。2月14日,英国伦敦著名智库国际战略研究所发布了2018年版《全球军力平衡报告》。报告不仅指出“歼-20”列装作战部队使得美国失去了独家持有实战用隐形战机的立场,还预测称中国能最快于今年内部署新型空空导弹“PL-15”(霹雳-15)。


  英国国际战略研究所总部是在美国,在全球享有公信力和权威度。研究认为,尽管有专家唱衰中国的歼20隐身战斗机,但是不可置疑的是歼20的列装确实让中国空军实现了 跨越式发展,这些战机能挂载各种与西方武器质量不相上下的空对空导弹,对美西方霸主地位构成重大考验。专家们称,中国正在研制的“PL-15”空对空导弹,属于超远程级别,能定点打击加油机和预警机。

  “PL-15”空对空导弹其实早就进入人们视野。2017年7月20日,英国《简氏防务周刊》网站刊发文章《新型超视距空空导弹可能已列装中国空军》称,中国空军“PL-15”型空空导弹曝光,将是歼-20战斗机的主要超视距空空导弹武器。国内多家媒体分析认为,“PL-15”型空空导弹长约3.7米,直径约20厘米,射程达到400公里。


  众所周知,空中加油机和预警机自身防护能力弱,虽然在空战中地位重要但是也最脆弱。比如预警机,现在最大探测距离也就是400—500公里左右,歼20自身隐身效果再加上射程超远的“PL-15”型空空导弹,等预警机发现来袭导弹时早就来不及了,可以说简直一打一个准。


  歼-20战机2016年11月参加珠海航展,首次公开进行飞行展示,今年2月9日,中国空军新闻发言人申进科大校发布消息,中国自主研制的新一代隐身战斗机歼-20,开始列装空军作战部队,向全面形成作战能力迈出重要一步。此前还在空军“红剑-2017”体系对抗演习中发挥重要作用。2月10日,中国空军还发布了一张歼20雪野飞行的照片,预示着歼20已经能够全天候作战。3天后,央视《军事报道》还罕见出现列装部队后飞行状态的歼-20战机。


  毫无疑问,歼-20战机将进一步提升空军综合作战能力,有助于空军更好的肩负起维护国家主权、安全和领土完整的神圣使命。如今,西方国家感到紧张这就对了!(作者署名:大国防务)
 
Last edited:

tanwahtiu

Alfrescian
Loyal
Where history of evil people teaches you not to let in evil into you motherland again...

This evil eyes angmoh presenter bias reporting need to be smack in the face.


Evil BE not welcome to N Asia or Asia.



 

tanwahtiu

Alfrescian
Loyal
Where link?

I know and the rise of China can handle this white shitskin.

Most of the Chinese scientists in US and West have returned to China to begin the return of mighty golden dragon...


since u are so enthusiastic in whacking the brit

here is a must watch video for u

The Spider’s Web: Britain’s Second Empire

the british empire is as powerful as before.
 
Last edited:

Tony Tan

Alfrescian
Loyal
Huat Ah! Ang Moh finally learned the true intent of PLA's PL-15 A-A missile! It is certainly to kill Ang Moh's AWACs & Air-Refuel Tankers, these are usually the targets hard to engage with A-A missiles because both, that they are usually too distance away and too protected to get close to kill. PL-15 is an extra-long range A-A missile. Estimate range 400-500km aka when fired from SG53 air space can kill AWACs / Tankers almost at Penang air space.

AWACs & Tankers & Troop Transporters (e.g. C-17 C-5 C-130) are all slow aircraft targets, unlike fighter jets. Usually are also High Value Targets, because once hit, it cost the enemy huge losses and huge mission compromise and handicap & in case of troop carriers hundreds of death toll.

These targets usually stay well apart and away from where your fighter jets can go for a kill, usually gets fighter escort, and fighter to engage you when you come for a kill. However, now with PL-15. It can engage & kill you far before your fighter escort could engage / kill them. So, they will come to 400km range to fire PL-15 & leave, and your escorting fighter jets can only engage them at the most 120km due to USAF LRAAMs missile range MAX Limit.

With PL-15 PLA can just shoot from 400~500km range at highest value targets, down them and happily and safely return to base, and USAF escort jets are absolutely unable to engage them, and are at highest self-risk, if PLA got extra PL-15 balance after downing the AWAC / Tanker / Transporters, they will certainly down the escorting fighters as well. No escape and no chance to fire back, because they can never be reached!

This can be visualized / illustrated:

USAF fighter jets escort AWAC near Penang air space, PLA AWAC discovered from Indon air space (detection range over 850km possible) calls PLA 3 jets armed with PL-15 from Jakarta, when reached SG53 air space, volley of PL-15 A-A missiles fired at USAF near Penang @MACH4 speed (10mins flight time), the tracking command is by PLA AWAC from Indon air space. PLA attack jets can return to base after fired PL-15. There is nothing USAF can do to dodge as the targets are slow moving heavy targets and PL-15 comes at 4900km/h speed. To shoot at PLA jets is impossible unless USAF jets were at 120km from SG53 air space (in Johore nearer than Muar) for MAX MACH2 USAF jets to fly from Penang to Muar needs 15 mins. The PLA jets already returned and reach base before you chase. Besides they can use PL-15 to kill you any time, your chase will be suicidal.

The rather realistic scenario is when USAF fleet got shot down at Penang air space from SG53 air space, their furthest LRAAMs max range could only hardly reach KLIA. Can not reach SG53. That means they can not return fire at PLA jets at all. This absolute air superiority advantage. Kill Range Advantage, like a rifle shooting against a hand gun!


http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-02-17/doc-ifyrpeif1977405.shtml

英媒称中国歼20年内将装备最强PL15导弹 专打预警机
英媒称中国歼20年内将装备最强PL15导弹 专打预警机

0

  狗年春节前夕,空军接连公布歼20列装作战部队的消息,给国人新春佳节注入一针“兴奋剂”,令人振奋不已。俗话说好事成双,这不英国专家也给咱们送上一份大礼——射程更远、威力更猛的专打对手加油机预警机的新型空空导弹“霹雳-15”导弹今年年内将装备。

  正所谓好马配好鞍。歼20这种中国自主研制的新一代隐身战斗机,不仅在国内最牛,在世界上也是数一数二的。发挥这种攻击平台最大优势,最好的方法就是配上最牛的导弹。2月14日,英国伦敦著名智库国际战略研究所发布了2018年版《全球军力平衡报告》。报告不仅指出“歼-20”列装作战部队使得美国失去了独家持有实战用隐形战机的立场,还预测称中国能最快于今年内部署新型空空导弹“PL-15”(霹雳-15)。


  英国国际战略研究所总部是在美国,在全球享有公信力和权威度。研究认为,尽管有专家唱衰中国的歼20隐身战斗机,但是不可置疑的是歼20的列装确实让中国空军实现了 跨越式发展,这些战机能挂载各种与西方武器质量不相上下的空对空导弹,对美西方霸主地位构成重大考验。专家们称,中国正在研制的“PL-15”空对空导弹,属于超远程级别,能定点打击加油机和预警机。

  “PL-15”空对空导弹其实早就进入人们视野。2017年7月20日,英国《简氏防务周刊》网站刊发文章《新型超视距空空导弹可能已列装中国空军》称,中国空军“PL-15”型空空导弹曝光,将是歼-20战斗机的主要超视距空空导弹武器。国内多家媒体分析认为,“PL-15”型空空导弹长约3.7米,直径约20厘米,射程达到400公里。


  众所周知,空中加油机和预警机自身防护能力弱,虽然在空战中地位重要但是也最脆弱。比如预警机,现在最大探测距离也就是400—500公里左右,歼20自身隐身效果再加上射程超远的“PL-15”型空空导弹,等预警机发现来袭导弹时早就来不及了,可以说简直一打一个准。


  歼-20战机2016年11月参加珠海航展,首次公开进行飞行展示,今年2月9日,中国空军新闻发言人申进科大校发布消息,中国自主研制的新一代隐身战斗机歼-20,开始列装空军作战部队,向全面形成作战能力迈出重要一步。此前还在空军“红剑-2017”体系对抗演习中发挥重要作用。2月10日,中国空军还发布了一张歼20雪野飞行的照片,预示着歼20已经能够全天候作战。3天后,央视《军事报道》还罕见出现列装部队后飞行状态的歼-20战机。


  毫无疑问,歼-20战机将进一步提升空军综合作战能力,有助于空军更好的肩负起维护国家主权、安全和领土完整的神圣使命。如今,西方国家感到紧张这就对了!(作者署名:大国防务)

In my previous post, I did not write about the business of whole STEALTH GAME. Here it is: The whole so called Stealth Idea of USAF, is such that so called Stealth Planes are not turning on their own radar signals, and they fully depending on AWACs to be their eyes. The game is like torch lights in the darkness. You can turn on your radar it is like a torch light to see things in the darkness, but then everyone else sees you from far, that you are the one using a torch light searching. USAF let AWACs be the only one turning on a big radar, and the so called stealth fighters F-22 F-35 shut off their radar signals and data-link shows their pilots what the AWAC's big strong radar can see.

Hence AWAC is a very big obvious target visible from hundreds km or even 1000km, by any old 3rd world radar systems. The USAF idea is AWACs must be located high and far from enemies missiles and fighters reach and the F-22 & F-35 will intercept any fighters from attacking AWACs. Now PLA's PL-15 changed the game, none of the the AWACs, tankers, stealth fighters are safe from PLA, and PLA jets are safely away from USAF missiles's short range. Most USAF A-A missiles are 20km 50km range the furthest LRAAM is 120km only. PL-15 is 400km range. Advantage is very clear cut more than double! The USAF can protect NOTHING. PLA are very safe! They can send even the slowest old jets to kill all of USAF, and safely return because of PL-15.

How this game is done?

1st kill the AWACs, the #1 target. Once AWAC is gone, USAF if blinded, All the so called stealth fighters have to be forced to turn on their own radars to see what is in the air. This is when they are NO LONGER STEALTH. Their AWAC big torch light is gone, they each have to turn on their own torch lights, hence all are visible to ANY Radars! This is when PLA can do happy free firing PL-15. Kill each and every one from a safe distance, they have no chance to fire back!

HUAT AH!




http://slide.mil.news.sina.com.cn/slide_8_193_61066.html#p=1

射程超400公里:中国超远程空空导弹作战模式示意图
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全屏观看 2018.02.19 10:50:36

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中国超远程空空导弹PL-XX作战模式示意图:初始目标参数通过空警2000的数据进行更新,中段飞行可依靠数据链加惯导加北斗导航修正,末端制导采用双模式复合引导弹头。新浪军事独家制图,仅供参考。

霹雳-15远程空空导弹曝光,如今已开始出现于解放军各大演习之中,再次曝光,这显然已完成霹雳15导弹列装,刚刚列装部队就开始进行应用。据测算,霹雳-15弹长5.7米左右,可能采用高空道弹,抵达目标前进行末端机动性,估计射程400公里,甚至更高。


  现代战争中空中预警机与空中加油机等特种机为重要的支援力量,有“战力倍增器“之称,自然也成了双方重点关注的对象。也许超远程空对空导弹为最大威胁,目前多国都在从事远程空空导弹研发,这让美军忧心其威胁。



霹雳15是一款颠覆性空战武器,毕竟射程达到400公里,颠覆了现有空战战术理念,这类武器上F22遇上也一样没招了,其射程太远了,没等F22去拦截导弹载机,导弹已经发射了,所以远程空空导弹一直为美军相当忧心的事,但是现在这个事情依然发生了。



远程射程是它的优势,对空中预警机等大型空中目标威胁相当大,受技术条件的限制,预警机最大监视距离约400到500公里,对战斗机类目标只有300公里。



如果空对空导弹射程超过300公里,那等预警机发现来袭目标时,很可能对方的导弹已经发射,更不要说,400公里了。由于导弹的个头很小,预警机也许只能在几十公里的地方发现它,那时再采用措施就晚了,也就没有安全可言了!

  当然了,也有缺点,那就是机动过载偏小,但是大型空中目标几乎没有机动规避的能力,不算问题的问题了。


技术上的难题为:制导,以前受制导技术限制,空对空导弹射程受到限制,如今随着数据链、中继制导、主动雷达制导等多种技术的进步,让不可能变可能了。

霹雳15以惯性制导加数据链进行中断制导,未段采用主动雷达系统,也可能开发为反辐射型,通过跟踪预警机雷达来追踪目标。



  • 目前已知歼16可以挂载霹雳-15,其它型号也一样可以,实战中,可没办法提前知道那架战机加挂了它,那么预警机如何分辩对方战机构成的威胁那?别弄成惊弓之鸟了。

歼20作为一款标准五代机,在作战性能上要远远优于其他战机,隐身的优势,让歼20在一般情况下不需要携带近距空空导弹。在充分发挥隐身优势的情况下,歼20在百公里外就能先发现目标,面对隐身战机,四代机恐怕要到几十公里内才能发现歼20,这时恐怕为时已晚。


  • 所以,歼20搭配的导弹射程要求越远越好,只有射程远才能真正的发挥出其隐身优势,霹雳15正好能满足这样的条件。霹雳15曾亮相过珠海航展,网络上也出现过多次歼10C和歼11D试射的画面,外媒对此导弹非常关注。

为什么外媒会对霹雳15感兴趣?原因很简单,根据目前的数据来看,这款导弹可以说是世界上射程最远的空空导弹,最大射程高达400公里,这是目前现役空空导弹中最远的。


就连美国F22装备的“阿姆拉姆”远程空空导弹也望城莫及,因为后者的最大射程只有160公里,还不到霹雳15的一半。

  • 中国空军列装的霹雳-15,将让敌手的预警机处于枪口之下,几乎无处可藏。既便不能击落,只要构成有效威胁,那么就足以干扰敌方空中支援和指挥系统。(作者署名:浴火)
 
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