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Origin Infinite Jade Emperor 玉皇 玉帝 August Emperor of Jade 玉皇大帝 Jade Lord The Highest Great Emperor Of Jade 玉皇上帝


:FU::thumbsup::whistling::barefoot:Origin Infinite Jade Emperor 玉皇 玉帝 August Emperor of Jade 玉皇大帝 Jade Lord The Highest Great Emperor Of Jade 玉皇上帝:barefoot::whistling::thumbsup::FU:











Menshen or door gods[1] are divine guardians of doors and gates in Chinese folk religions, used to protect against evil influences or to encourage the entrance of positive ones. They began as the divine pair Shenshu (Chinese: 神荼; Jyutping: San4 Tou4; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Sîn-tô͘ ) and Yulü (Chinese: 鬱壘; Jyutping: Wat1 Leoi5; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ut-lúi) under the Han, but the deified generals Qin Shubao (Chinese: 秦叔寶; Jyutping: Ceon4 Suk1 Bou2; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chîn Siok-pó) and Yuchi Gong (Chinese: 尉遲恭; Jyutping: Wai3 Ci4 Gung1; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ut-tî Kiong) have been more popular since the Tang. In cases where a door god is affixed to a single door, Wei Zheng or Zhong Kui is commonly used.

Menshen in Taiwan
Traditional Chinese門神
Simplified Chinese门神
Literal meaninggate god(s)
Martial Door Gods
Traditional Chinese門神
Simplified Chinese门神
Literal meaningmilitary gate god(s)
Southern Min
Yue: Cantonese
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinwuménshén
Jyutpingmou5 mun4 san4
Hokkien POJbú-mn̂g-sîn
Civil Door Gods
Traditional Chinese門神
Simplified Chinese门神
Literal meaningliterary gate god(s)
Southern Min
Yue: Cantonese
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinwenménshén
Jyutpingman4 mun4 san4
Hokkien POJbûn-mn̂g-sîn


The following persons, some of whom are mythological figures, are known to have been worshipped as door gods.

Shenshu神荼The earliest-attested door gods, appearing in the Mountain and Sea Classic. Ordered by the Jade Emperor to guard the trees of the Peaches of Immortality, which were being gnawed upon by demons.
Wangtianjun王天君Attendants of the North God, seen at Taoist temples
Azure DragonSeen at Taoist temples
White Tiger
Qianliyan"All-seeing" and "All-hearing" demons sometimes considered the deified forms of the brothers Gao Ming and Gao Jue, rapacious generals or bandits of the era of King Zhou of the Shang, who were subdued and befriended by the Fujianeseshamanessand sea goddessMazu. They typically serve as the door gods of her temples, although they also appear as the "eyes" and "ears" of the Jade Emperor in The Journey to the West.
Fangbi方弼Two figures from The Creation of the Gods
Tianguan Dadi天官大帝A form of the most-high God and the founder of Quanzhen Taoism. Seen in Taoist temples.
Liu Haichan劉海蟾
Miji Jingang密迹金剛Also known as the Hēnghā Èrjiàng (哼哈二将), derived from the Buddhist Vajrapani, derived from Greco-Buddhistforms of Heracles. Seen in Buddhist and Taoist temples.
Naluoyan Jingang那羅延金剛
HeCollectively, the "2 Immortals He and He", with names meaning "Harmony" and "Union".
Qin Shubao秦叔寶Tang generals whose image was ordered placed upon gates by the Great Ancestor of the Tang ("Emperor Taizong")
Yuchi Gong尉遲恭
Sun BinWarring-Statesgenerals, worshipped in parts of Shaanxi.
Pang Juan
Bai QiWarring-States generals
Li Mu
Randeng Daoren
Zhao Gongming
FusuA Qin crown prince and general who defended its northern border against the Xiongnu.
Meng Tian
Chen ShengRebels who led the Dazexiang Uprisingagainst the Qin Empire
Wu Guang
ZiyingThe last emperor of the Qin dynasty and his successor, who nominally oversaw the Eighteen Kingdomsthat preceded the establishment of the Han dynasty
Ying BuHan generals under Liu Bang, founder of Han
Peng Yue
Yao Qi姚期Fictionalized leaders under Emperor Guangwu in the Romance of the Eastern Han (東漢演義)
Ma Wu馬武
Guan YuGuan Yu and Zhang Fei were Shugenerals during the Three Kingdoms, depicted as Liu Bei's sworn brothers in the Romance of the Three Kingdomsand numbered among the Five Tiger Generals. Guan Ping was his son. Zhou Cang was a fictional subordinate in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Guan Sheng was a fictional descendant who appears in the novelOutlaws of the Marsh.
Zhang Fei
Guan Ping
Zhou Cang
Guan Sheng
Zhao YunShu generals during the Three Kingdoms, numbered among the Five Tiger Generals. Seen in parts of Henan.
Ma Chao
Ma ChaoShu generals during the Three Kingdoms. Seen in parts of Hebei.
Ma Dai
Zhuge LiangChief ministers of the states of Shu and Weiduring the Three Kingdoms, depicted as nemeses in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Sima Yi
Pei Yuanqing裴元慶A fictional rebel general and a fictionalized historical son of Li Yuan, founder of the Tang, who appear in the Shuo Tang
Li Yuanba李元霸
Wei ZhengEarly Tang officials
"Xu Maogong"
(Li Shiji)
Xue RenguiGenerals from both sides of the Tang-Goguryeo War. Seen in parts of northern Hebei.
Yeon Gaesomun
Zhang XunTang officials who died defending Suiyangagainst the An Lushan Rebellion.
Xu Yuan
Zhao KuangyinThe Great Ancestor("Emperor Taizu") of the Song dynastyand the ancestor of the Song's dynasty of Yang generals
Yang Gun楊袞
Meng Liang孟良Fictionalized subordinates of the Yang generals
Jiao Zan焦贊
Jun Ior岳雲Nic Sr's son and disobedient one. Leader of the ball tip clan.
Yue FeiA Song general and a Taoist deity
Wen Taibao溫太保
Yue Yun岳雲Yue Fei's son and subordinate
Di Lei狄雷
Xu Yanzhao徐延昭
Yang Bo楊波
Fan Lihua樊梨花Fictional wives of Xue Dingshandepicted in the Xiaobei Taishuai Gong in Tainan on Taiwan.[5]
Chen Jinding陳金定
Mu Guiying穆桂英Qin was a female general from Sichuan under the Ming.[6][7][8]



Guan Yu ([kwán ỳ] ( listen); d. January or February 220[a]), courtesy nameYunchang, was a Chinese military general serving under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Along with Zhang Fei, he shared a brotherly relationship with Liu Bei and accompanied him on most of his early exploits. Guan Yu played a significant role in the events leading up to the end of the Han dynasty and the establishment of Liu Bei's state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdomsperiod. While he is remembered for his loyalty towards Liu Bei, he is also known for repaying Cao Cao's kindness by slaying Yan Liang, a general under Cao Cao's rival Yuan Shao, at the Battle of Boma. After Liu Bei gained control of Yi Province in 214, Guan Yu remained in Jing Province to govern and defend the area for about seven years. In 219, while he was away fighting Cao Cao's forces at the Battle of Fancheng, Liu Bei's ally Sun Quan broke the Sun–Liu alliance and sent his general Lü Mengto conquer Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province. By the time Guan Yu found out about the loss of Jing Province after his defeat at Fancheng, it was too late. He was subsequently captured in an ambush by Sun Quan's forces and executed.[2]

Personal details
Lieutenant-General (偏將軍)
(under Cao Cao, then Liu Bei)
Administrator of Xiangyang (襄陽太守)
(under Liu Bei)
General Who Defeats Bandits (盪寇將軍)
(under Liu Bei)
General of the Vanguard (前將軍)
Guan Yu
A portrait of Guan Yu in the Sancai Tuhui
In office
MonarchsLiu Bei (King of Hanzhong) /
Emperor Xian (Han dynasty)
In office
c. 211–219
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
In office
c. 211–219
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
In office
200 – c. 211
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Xie County, Hedong Commandery, Han Empire (present-day Yuncheng, Shanxi)
DiedJanuary or February 220[a]
Linju County, Xiangyang Commandery, Han Empire (present-day Nanzhang County, Hubei)
Courtesy nameYúncháng (雲長)
Posthumous nameMarquis Zhuàngmóu (壯繆侯)
PeerageMarquis of Hànshòu Village
Deity names
  • Guān Dì (關帝; "Divus Guan")
  • Guān Gōng (關公; "Lord Guan")
  • Guān Shèng Dì Jūn (關聖帝君; "Holy Ruler Deity Guan")
  • Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩)
Other names
  • Guān Èr Yé (關二爺; "Lord Guan the Second")
  • Kwan Yee Gor (Cantonese Yale: Gwāan Yih Gō; Pinyin: Guān Èr Gē; 關二哥; "Guan the Second Brother")
  • Měi Rán Gōng (美髯公; "Lord of the Magnificent Beard")
  • Chángshēng (長生)
  • Shòucháng (壽長)
  • See this section for more posthumous titles
Guan Yu's life was lionised and his achievements glorified to such an extent after his death that he was deified during the Sui dynasty. Through generations of storytelling, culminating in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, his deeds and moral qualities have been given immense emphasis, making Guan Yu one of East Asia's most popular paradigms of loyalty and righteousness. He is still worshipped by many Chinese people today. In religious devotion he is reverentially called the "Emperor Guan" (Guān Dì) or "Lord Guan" (Guān Gōng). He is a deity worshipped in Chinese folk religion, popular Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese Buddhism, and small shrines to him are almost ubiquitous in traditional Chinese shops and restaurants.

Worship of Guan YuEdit

Multi-story-high statue of Guan Yu at Jinguashi
Guan Yu was deified as early as the Sui dynasty (581–618), and is still worshipped today as a bodhisattva in Buddhist tradition and as a guardian deity in Chinese folk religion and Taoism.[15] He is also held in high esteem in Confucianism.

In Chinese religionEdit

Cart for Shinto procession with Guan Yu statue from the Kanda Shrine, now preserved at the Edo-Tokyo Museum.
In Chinese folk religion, Guan Yu is widely referred to as "Emperor Guan" (; Guāndì; dì implies deified status) and "Lord Guan" (; Guān Gōng), while his Taoist title is "Holy Emperor Lord Guan" (關聖帝君; Guān Shèng Dì Jūn). Martial temples and shrines dedicated exclusively to Guan Yu can be found across mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and other places with Chinese influence such as Vietnam, South Korea and Japan. Some of these temples, such as the Guandi Temple in Xiezhou (解州), Shanxi, were built exactly in the layout of an imperial residence, befitting his status as a "ruler".

Historical venerationEdit

The apotheosis of Guan Yu occurred in stages, as he was given ever higher posthumous titles. Liu Shan, the second emperor of Shu, gave Guan Yu the posthumous title of "Marquis Zhuangmou" (壯繆侯) four decades after his death. During the Song dynasty, Emperor Huizong bestowed upon Guan Yu the title "Duke Zhonghui" (忠惠公), and later the title of a prince. In 1187, Emperor Xiaozong honoured Guan Yu as "Prince Zhuangmou Yiyong Wu'an Yingji" (壯繆義勇武安英濟王). During the Yuan dynasty, Emperor Wenzong changed Guan Yu's title to "Prince of Xianling Yiyong Wu'an Yingji" (顯靈義勇武安英濟王).
In 1614, the Wanli Emperor bestowed on Guan Yu the title "Holy Emperor Guan, the Great God Who Subdues Demons in the Three Worlds and Whose Awe Spreads Far and Moves Heaven" (三界伏魔大神威遠震天尊關聖帝君). During the Qing dynasty, the Shunzhi Emperor gave Guan Yu the title of "Guan, the Loyal and Righteous God of War, the Holy Great Deity" (忠義神武關聖大帝) in 1644. This title was expanded to "Guan the Holy Great Deity; God of War Manifesting Benevolence, Bravery and Prestige; Protector of the Country and Defender of the People; Proud and Honest Supporter of Peace and Reconciliation; Promoter of Morality, Loyalty and Righteousness" (仁勇威顯護國保民精誠綏靖翊贊宣德忠義神武關聖大帝), a total of 24 Chinese characters, by the mid-19th century. It is often shortened to "Saint of War" (武聖; Wǔ Shèng), which is of the same rank as Confucius, who is honoured the "Saint of Culture" (文聖; Wén Shèng). The Qing dynasty promoted the worship of Guan Yu among the Mongol tribes, making him one of their most revered religious figures, second only to their lamas.[16]

Altar of Guan Yu in Osaka.
Throughout history, Guan Yu has also been credited with many military successes. In the 14th century, his spirit was said to have aided Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, at the Battle of Lake Poyang. In 1402, when Zhu Di launched a coup d'état and successfully deposed his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor, Zhu Di claimed that he was blessed by the spirit of Guan Yu. During the last decade of the 16th century, Guan Yu was also credited with the repulse of Japanese invasion of Koreaby Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Manchu imperial clan of the Qing dynasty was also associated with Guan Yu's martial qualities. During the 20th century, Guan Yu was worshipped by the warlord Yuan Shikai, president and later a short-lived emperor of China.
Guan Yu's messages were received by mediums through spirit writing, later called Fuji (planchette writing) (扶乩/扶箕), since the late 17th century. “By the mid-Qianlong period (1736–96) the number of ‘sacred edicts’ issued by Guandi ordering people to do good and help those in need became increasingly frequent.” In the 19th century, Guandi’s messages received through spirit writing assumed a millennialist character. Dates were announced for the end of the world, followed by messages indicating that Guandi had “prevented the apocalypse” and was indeed “the savior of endtimes.” In 1866, the Ten Completions Society (Shiquanhui 十全會) was established to propagate the messages of Guandi and promote the charitable work his spirit had ordered to perform. The tradition of Guandi spirit writing continued in Chinese folk Religion well into the 20th century.[17]

Contemporary venerationEdit

Altar of Guan Yu at a restaurant in Beijing.
Today, Guan Yu is still widely worshipped by the Chinese; he may be worshipped in Martial temples and Wen Wu temples, and small shrines devoted to him are also found in homes, businesses and fraternal organisations. In Hong Kong, a shrine to Guan Yu can be found in every police station. Though by no means mandatory, Chinese police officers worship and pay respect to him. Although seemingly ironic, members of the triads and Heaven and Earth Society worship Guan Yu as well. Statues used by triads tend to hold the halberd in the left hand, and statues in police stations tend to hold the halberd in the right hand. This signifies which side Guan Yu is worshipped, by the righteous people or vice versa. The appearance of Guan Yu's face for the triads is usually more stern and threatening than the usual statue. In Hong Kong, Guan Yu is often referred to as "Yi Gor" (二哥; Cantonese for "second elder brother") for he was second to Liu Bei in their fictional sworn brotherhood. Guan Yu is also worshipped by Chinese businessmen in Shanxi, Hong Kong, Macau and Southeast Asia as an alternative wealth god, since he is perceived to bless the upright and protect them from the wicked. Another reason is related to the release of Cao Cao during the Huarong Trail incident, in which he let Cao and his men pass through safely. For that, he was perceived to be able to extend the lifespan of people in need. Among Chinese Filipinos in the Philippines, Guan Yu is also sometimes known as "Santo Santiago" (St. James) or in Hokkien as "Te Ya Kong" (HokkienChinese: 帝爺公; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tè-iâ-kong) or "Kuan Kong" (Hokkien Chinese: 關公; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Koan-kong).[18]
Among the Cantonese people who emigrated to California during the mid-19th century, the worship of Guan Yu was an important element. Statues and tapestry images of the god can be found in a number of historical California joss houses (a local term for Chinese folk religiontemples), where his name may be given with various Anglicised spellings, including: Kwan Dai, Kwan Tai or Kuan Ti for Guandi (Emperor Guan); Kuan Kung for Guan Gong (Lord Guan), Wu Ti or Mo Dai for Wu Di (War Deity), Kuan Yu, Kwan Yu, or Quan Yu for Guan Yu. The Mendocino Joss House, a historical landmark also known as Mo Dai Miu (Wudimiao, i.e. the Temple of the Deity of War), or Temple of Kwan Tai, built in 1852, is a typical example of the small shrines erected to Guan Yu in the United States.
Guan Yu is also worshipped as a door god in Chinese and Taoist temples, with portraits of him being pasted on doors to ward off evil spirits, usually in pairings with Zhang Fei, Guan Ping, Guan Sheng or Zhou Cang.
Apart from general worship, Guan Yu is also commemorated in China with colossal statues such as the 1,320-tonne sculpture in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province, standing at 58 metres.[19]

In TaoismEdit

Guan Yu is revered as "Holy Ruler Deity Guan" (關聖帝君; Guān Shèng Dì Jūn) and a leading subduer of demons in Taoism. Taoist worship of Guan Yu began during the Song dynasty. Legend has it that during the second decade of the 12th century, the saltwater lake in Xiezhou gradually ceased to yield salt. Emperor Huizong then summoned Zhang Jixian (張繼先), a 30th-generation descendant of Zhang Daoling, to investigate the cause. The emperor was told that the disruption was the work of Chi You, a deity of war. Zhang Jixian then recruited the help of Guan Yu, who battled Chi You over the lake and triumphed, whereupon the lake resumed salt production. Emperor Huizong then bestowed upon Guan Yu the title "Immortal of Chongning" (崇寧真君; Chóngníng Zhēnjūn), formally introducing the latter as a deity into Taoism.[citation needed]
In the early Ming dynasty, the 42nd Celestial Master, Zhang Zhengchang (張正常), recorded the incident in his book Lineage of the Han Celestial Masters (漢天師世家), the first Taoist classic to affirm the legend. Today, Taoist practices are predominant in Guan Yu worship. Many temples dedicated to Guan Yu, including the Emperor Guan Temple in Xiezhou County, show heavy Taoist influence. Every year, on the 24th day of the sixth month on the lunar calendar (Guan Yu's birthday in legend), a street parade in Guan Yu's honour would also be held.[citation needed]

In BuddhismEdit

Imperial thangka of the Qianlong period (1736–95) depicting Guan Yu as Sangharama Bodhisattva.
In Chinese Buddhism, Guan Yu is revered by most Chinese Mahayana Buddhists as Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽蓝菩萨; 伽藍菩薩; Qiélán Púsà) a heavenly protector of the Buddhist dharma. Sangharama in Sanskritmeans 'community garden' (sangha, community + arama, garden) and thus 'monastery'. The term Sangharama also refer to the dharmapala class of devas and spirits assigned to guard the Buddhist monastery, the dharma, and the faith itself. Over time and as an act of syncreticism, Guan Yu was seen as the representative guardian of the temple and the garden in which it stands. His statue traditionally is situated in the far left of the main altar, opposite his counterpart Skanda.[citation needed]
According to Buddhist legends, in 592, Guan Yu manifested himself one night before the Chan master Zhiyi, the founder of the Tiantaischool of Buddhism, along with a retinue of spiritual beings. Zhiyi was then in deep meditation on Jade Spring Hill (玉泉山) when he was distracted by Guan Yu's presence. Guan Yu then requested the master to teach him about the dharma. After receiving Buddhist teachings from the master, Guan Yu took refuge in the triple gems and also requested the Five Precepts. Henceforth, it is said that Guan Yu made a vow to become a guardian of temples and the dharma. Legends also claim that Guan Yu assisted Zhiyi in the construction of the Yuquan Temple, which still stands today.[citation needed]

Notable Guandi temples worldwide (outside mainland China)Edit


The Guan Yu Statue is a large monument to Chinese deified military general Guan Yulocated in Jingzhou, China. The statue was designed by Han Meilin, and finished construction in 2016.[1] It stands at 58 metres tall, weighs 1,197 tonnes, and is made of around 4,000 bronze strips.[2] The project began in 2013 when Han Meilin visited Jingzhou for inspiration, and personally oversaw the designing and installing of the statue.[3]

Statue of Guan Yu
Guan Yu Statue.jpg

Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
LocationJingzhou, Hubei, People's Republic of China
DesignerHan Meilin
MaterialSteel framing, reinforced by concrete, bronze strips
Height58 metres (190 ft)
Weight1197 tonnes
Visitors220,000 (in 2018)
Beginning date2013
Completion date17 June 2016
Dedicated toGuan Yu
Guan Yu is depicted wearing his traditional robes and cloak, whilst wielding his famous guandao known as the Green Dragon Crescent Blade,[4] which weighs 123 tonnes.[5] The figure stands atop a 10 metre pedestal, which resembles an ancient Chinese warship.[6]Inside the base is a 7,710 square-metre museum and shrine to Guan Yu.[6]

The project cost 1.5 billion yuan,[7] and was officially opened to the public on June 17th, 2016. On the day of the unveiling, activities such as worship, visiting fairs, and praying to Guan Yu were held. Han Meilin was present for the ceremony.[5]



Leave a Comment / 懶人包之說, 最新文章 / By admin
關聖帝君信仰遍及世界各地,祂在我國文化上橫跨「儒」、「 釋 」、「 道 」 三派教流,同樣是不同民族之間的共同信仰。從武聖財神再到護法神等,不同的角色在同一個人物身上卻得到了完美的演繹。被大家崇仰的「關聖帝君」每年農曆六月廿四日聖誕吸引許多信徒敬拜..這篇就告訴大家台灣北到南人氣極高的幾間關帝廟!


( 圖/ 台北行天宮─南天文衡聖帝關恩主 來源/網路 )




威天宮位於桃園龜山的大坑村最大特色,主祀關聖帝君,是電視名製作人-李鵬先生發下宏願,歷時19年花費10億台幣建蓋,全廟以龍銀代替燒香及供品與祂結緣,為不燒香的環保廟宇,其關聖帝君神像也是全東南亞之最,高為7.2米 伽藍菩薩法像。
( 圖/ 桃園威天宮─全東南亞之最關聖帝君  來源/網路 )



( 圖/新竹關帝廟 ─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )

  • 地址:新竹市東區南門街109-1號
  • 電話:(03)522-1339
  • 粉專:新竹關帝廟


( 圖/ 新竹古奇峰普天宮 ─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )




( 圖/ 台中南天宮─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )



( 圖/彰化關帝廟─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )

  • 地址:500彰化縣彰化市民族路467號
  • 電話:(04)7241394
  • 粉專:彰邑關帝廟


( 圖/斗六南聖宮─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )




( 圖/ 嘉邑鎮天宮  來源/網路 )

  • 地址:600嘉義市東區芳安路195號
  • 電話:(05)2225140
  • 粉專:嘉邑鎮天宮


( 圖/高雄東照山關帝廟 ─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )



( 圖/ 車城統埔鎮安宮 ─關聖帝君  來源/網路 )


Mañjuśrī (Sanskrit: मञ्जुश्री) is a bodhisattvaassociated with prajñā (wisdom) in Mahāyāna Buddhism. His name means "Gentle Glory" in Sanskrit.[1] Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta (मञ्जुश्रीकुमारभूत),[2] literally "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less literally, "Prince Mañjuśrī". Another name of Mañjuśrī is Mañjughoṣa.

Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts.jpg
Mañjuśrī Pala Dynasty, India, 9th century CE.
Sanskritमञ्जुश्री /
(Pinyin: Wénshū Púsà)
(Pinyin: Wénshūshīlì Púsà)
(Pinyin: Mànshūshìlì Púsà)
(Pinyin: Miàojíxiáng Púsà)
(Pinyin Miàodé Púsà)
(Pinyin: Miàoyīn Púsà)
Cyrillicᠵᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠰᠢᠭᠲᠦ
Зөөлөн эгшигт
(romaji: Monju Bosatsu)
(romaji: Monjushiri Bosatsu)
(romaji: Monju Bosatsu)
(romaji: Myōkisshō Bosatsu)
(RR: Munsu Bosal)
(RR: Mansu Bosal)
(RR: Myokilsang Bosal)
Wylie: 'jam dpal dbyang
THL: Jampalyang
Wylie: 'jam dpal
THL: jampal
VietnameseVăn Thù Sư Lợi Bồ Tát
Diệu Đức
Diệu Cát Tường
Diệu Âm
Venerated byMahayana, Vajrayana
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It is claimed that Nurhaci, the founder of what would become the Qing dynasty of China, named his tribe Man (满) after Manjushri.

In Mahāyāna BuddhismEdit

Manjushri statue. Lhalung Gompa, Spiti Valley, India

Bodhisattva Monju (Manjushri), Kamakura period, Tokyo National Museum, Japan.
Scholars have identified Mañjuśrī as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature.[3] Mañjuśrī is first referred to in early Mahāyāna sūtras such as the Prajñāpāramitāsūtras and through this association, very early in the tradition he came to symbolize the embodiment of prajñā (transcendent wisdom).[2] The Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure landcalled Vimala, which according to the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East. His pure land is predicted to be one of the two best pure lands in all of existence in all the past, present, and future. When he attains Buddhahood his name will be Universal Sight[citation needed]. In the Lotus Sūtra, Mañjuśrī also leads the Nagaraja's daughter to enlightenment. He also figures in the Vimalakīrti Sūtra in a debate with Vimalakīrtiwhere he is presented as an Arhat who represents the wisdom of the Theravadatradition.

An example of a wisdom teaching of Mañjuśrī can be found in the Saptaśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (Taishō Tripiṭaka 232).[4] This sūtracontains a dialogue between Mañjuśrī and the Buddha on the One Samādhi (Skt. Ekavyūha Samādhi). Sheng-yen renders the following teaching of Mañjuśrī, for entering samādhinaturally through transcendent wisdom:

Contemplate the five skandhasas originally empty and quiescent, non-arising, non-perishing, equal, without differentiation. Constantly thus practicing, day or night, whether sitting, walking, standing or lying down, finally one reaches an inconceivable state without any obstruction or form. This is the Samadhi of One Act (yixing sanmei, 一行三昧).[5]

Vajrayāna BuddhismEdit

Within Vajrayāna Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is a meditational deity and considered a fully enlightened Buddha. In Shingon Buddhism, he is one of the Thirteen Buddhas to whom disciples devote themselves. He figures extensively in many esoteric texts such as the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa[2] and the Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti. His consort in some traditions is Saraswati.

The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa, which later came to classified under Kriyātantra, states that mantras taught in the Śaiva, Garuḍa, and Vaiṣṇava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by Mañjuśrī.[6]


Mañjuśrī is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing the realization of transcendent wisdom which cuts down ignorance and duality. The scripture supported by the padma(lotus) held in his left hand is a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra, representing his attainment of ultimate realization from the blossoming of wisdom. Mañjuśrī is often depicted as riding on a blue lion[citation needed] or sitting on the skin of a lion. This represents the use of wisdom to tame the mind, which is compared to riding or subduing a ferocious lion.

In Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art, Mañjuśrī's sword is sometimes replaced with a ruyi scepter, especially in representations of his Vimalakirti Sutra discussion with the layman Vimalakirti.[7] According to Berthold Laufer, the first Chinese representation of a ruyi was in an 8th-century Mañjuśrī painting by Wu Daozi, showing it held in his right hand taking the place of the usual sword. In subsequent Chinese and Japanese paintings of Buddhas, a ruyi was occasionally represented as a Padma with a long stem curved like a ruyi.[8]

He is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Chinese Buddhism, the other three being Kṣitigarbha, Avalokiteśvara, and Samantabhadra. In China, he is often paired with Samantabhadra[citation needed].

In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is sometimes depicted in a trinity with Avalokiteśvara and Vajrapāṇi[citation needed].


A mantra commonly associated with Mañjuśrī is the following:[9]

oṃ arapacana dhīḥ
The Arapacana is a syllabary consisting of forty-two letters, and is named after the first five letters: a, ra, pa, ca, na.[10] This syllabary was most widely used for the Gāndhārī language with the Kharoṣṭhī script but also appears in some Sanskrit texts. The syllabary features in Mahāyāna texts such as the longer Prajñāpāramitā texts, the Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra, the Lalitavistara Sūtra, the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, and the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya.[10] In some of these texts, the Arapacana syllabary serves as a mnemonic for important Mahāyāna concepts.[10] Due to its association with him, Arapacanamay even serve as an alternate name for Mañjuśrī.[9]

The Sutra on Perfect Wisdom (Conze 1975) defines the significance of each syllable thus:[citation needed]

  1. A is a door to the insight that all dharmas are unproduced from the very beginning (ādya-anutpannatvād).
  2. RA is a door to the insight that all dharmas are without dirt (rajas).
  3. PA is a door to the insight that all dharmas have been expounded in the ultimate sense (paramārtha).
  4. CA is a door to the insight that the decrease (cyavana) or rebirth of any dharma cannot be apprehended, because all dharmas do not decrease, nor are they reborn.
  5. NA is a door to the insight that the names (i.e. nāma) of all dharmas have vanished; the essential nature behind names cannot be gained or lost.
Tibetan pronunciation is slightly different and so the Tibetan characters read: oṃ a ra pa tsa na dhīḥ (Tibetan: ༀ་ཨ་ར་པ་ཙ་ན་དྷཱི༔, Wylie: om a ra pa tsa na d+hIH).[11] In Tibetan tradition, this mantra is believed to enhance wisdom and improve one's skills in debating, memory, writing, and other literary abilities. "Dhīḥ" is the seed syllable of the mantra and is chanted with greater emphasis and also repeated a number of times as a decrescendo.

In Buddhist culturesEdit

A painting of the Buddhist manjusri from the Yulin Caves of Gansu, China, from the Tangut-led Western Xia dynasty

In ChinaEdit

Mañjuśrī is known in China as Wenshu(Chinese: 文殊; pinyin: Wénshū). Mount Wutaiin Shanxi, one of the four Sacred Mountains of China, is considered by Chinese Buddhists to be his bodhimaṇḍa. He was said to bestow spectacular visionary experiences to those on selected mountain peaks and caves there. In Mount Wutai's Foguang Temple, the Manjusri Hall to the right of its main hall was recognized to have been built in 1137 during the Jin dynasty. The hall was thoroughly studied, mapped and first photographed by early twentieth-century Chinese architects Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin.[12] These made it a popular place of pilgrimage, but patriarchs including Linji Yixuan and Yunmen Wenyandeclared the mountain off limits.[13]

Mount Wutai was also associated with the East Mountain Teaching.[14] Mañjuśrī has been associated with Mount Wutai since ancient times. Paul Williams writes:[15]

Apparently the association of Mañjuśrī with Wutai (Wu-t'ai) Shan in north China was known in classical times in India itself, identified by Chinese scholars with the mountain in the 'north-east' (when seen from India or Central Asia) referred to as the abode of Mañjuśrī in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra. There are said to have been pilgrimages from India and other Asian countries to Wutai Shan by the seventh century.
According to official histories from the Qing dynasty, Nurhaci, a military leader of the Jurchens of Northeast China and founder of what became the Qing dynasty, named his tribe after Mañjuśrī as the Manchus.[16] The true origin of the name Manchu is disputed.[17]

Monk Hanshan (寒山) is widely considered to be a metaphorical manifestation of Mañjuśrī. He is known for having co-written the following famous poem about reincarnation with monk Shide:[18][19]

Drumming your grandpa in the shrine,
Cooking your aunts in the pot,
Marrying your grandma in the past,
Should I laugh or not?

In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī manifests in a number of different Tantric forms. Yamāntaka(meaning 'terminator of Yama i.e. Death') is the wrathful manifestation of Mañjuśrī, popular within the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Other variations upon his traditional form as Mañjuśrī include Namasangiti, Arapacana Manjushri, etc. In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is also an yidam.

In NepalEdit

According to Swayambhu Purana, the Kathmandu Valley was once a lake. It is believed that Mañjuśrī came on a pilgrimage from his earthly abode-Wutaishan (five-peaked mountain) in China. He saw a lotus flower in the center of the lake, which emitted brilliant radiance. He cut a gorge at Chovar with his flaming sword to allow the lake to drain. The place where the lotus flower settled became the great Swayambhunath Stupa, and the valley thus became habitable.

In IndonesiaEdit

In eighth century Java during the Mataram Kingdom, Mañjuśrī was a prominent deity revered by the Sailendra dynasty, patrons of Mahayana Buddhism. The Kelurak inscription(782) and Manjusrigrha inscription (792) mentioned about the construction of a grand Prasada named Vajrāsana Mañjuśrīgṛha (Vajra House of Mañjuśrī) identified today as Sewutemple, located just 800 meters north of the Prambanan. Sewu is the second largest Buddhist temple in Central Java after Borobudur. The depiction of Mañjuśrī in Sailendra art is similar to those of the Pala Empire style of Nalanda, Bihar. Mañjuśrī was portrayed as a youthful handsome man with the palm of his hands tattooed with the image of a flower. His right hand is facing down with an open palm while his left-hand holds an utpala (blue lotus). He also uses the necklace made of tiger canine teeth.

In other traditionsEdit

In Hindu tradition, Manjushri has been depicted as emanation of Shiva.[20]


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